List of Abstracts, Alphabetical by Author

Paper # 28
Teaching sustainability in a six star green building
Rick Best* (Bond University)
The building that houses the School of Sustainable Development at Bond University on Queensland’s Gold Coast opened in 2008 and was the first educational building in Australia to achieve the maximum six star rating under the Green Building Council of Australia’s Green Star rating scheme. It serves as a living model of the potential that green building design offers as part of the push to reduce greenhouse emissions and as such has been a key element in the School’s curricula. While it has served well as an exemplar it is not without its problems. In this reflective paper the author, an academic who has worked in the building for the past six years, looks at what has worked and what has not from the perspective of students and staff. A series of semi-structured interviews was conducted with representatives of both groups of users to ascertain opinions of those closest to the building.

Paper # 85
Cultivating the O-Shaped Engineer
Clare Brass* (Royal College of Art)
ABSTRACT Within their roots in the realm of construction, products and the physical world, it is not surprising that design and engineering education is grounded within the paradigm of consumerism and growth, perpetuating an unsustainable system. Often, the primary sustainability focus is on material improvements aided by the use of tools such as life-cycle assessment or embodied energy calculations. Students are rarely asked to question the context into which their designs will fit, or to explore how their designs can promote a different (more sustainable) future rather than just a less unsustainable one. While we remain within this economic paradigm, even the T-shaped engineer, with a broad general knowledge and deep expertise in one specific area, at best has potential to reduce negative environmental impact rather than to create positive social and environmental benefit. As such, the T-shaped engineer is allowed little opportunity to creatively explore more sustainable alternatives using systems-level thinking. How, then, can we prepare the next generation of designers and engineers to maximise their inherent skills to address the most intractable global issues, currently considered outside of their traditional remit? This paper questions if T really is the best shape for our engineers to adopt, or if it supports the designing of a better future world, proposing instead the O-shaped designer/engineer, whose primary concern is circular systems, worldviews, synergies and relationships. By training students to identify their personal values, redefine the brief and continually evaluate the balance between the social, environmental and economic impacts of their design, we can begin to intervene in the context of any given project, and create viable new ways of doing everyday things. SustainRCA at the Royal College of Art is exploring tools and methods to cultivate and support O-Shaped, rather than T-shaped, designers and engineers. One such tool, the Circular Thinking Workflow System, tracks, monitors and evaluates individual and group work through four key stages that help them examine the brief at different distances of focus – from the systemic ‘zoomed out’ view to the people-focused ‘zoomed in’ view – as well as the flows and relationships between them. There is also a strong emphasis on economic context, encouraging students to develop innovative ideas that can function in the real world, thus favouring the creation and development of viable entrepreneurial thinking. Conventional sustainability tools may still play an important role in reducing impact of physical objects; but if these objects are now instruments for the functioning of a new context or system, radical sustainable innovation becomes possible. Similar methodology is used in the development of action research work, where diverse issues – from sustainable mobility to high-welfare/low impact poultry farming – can be addressed, both from a user’s perspective and at a systems level. This paper will examine some of the tools used in depth, explaining some unexpected but essential components. Through two case studies it will show how their application is generating sustainable innovation and delivering new O-Shaped calibre of design engineers, ready to rebuild the future. Keywords: O-shaped designers, sustainability, design, paradigm, impact, Workflow System.

Paper # 36
The Impact of Project-based Learning on Self-directed Learning Readiness
Marjan Eggermont (Schulich School of Engineering)
Bob Brennan* (Schulich School of Engineering)
Tom O’Neill (Department of Psychology, U of C)
All incoming students at the University of Calgary’s Schulich School of Engineering take a first year Design and Communication course that requires them to work in teams of 4 on a number of open-ended design projects. The projects require students to be persistent, self-disciplined, and curious, while carefully organizing and pacing themselves to reach their end goal. In this paper, we use the Self-directed Learning Readiness Scale (SDLRS) survey to determine if, by practicing these skills, students’ self-directed learning readiness is improved. We compare a compare a new cohort of first-year engineering students with a cohort of first-years students with project-based learning experience. The results suggest that project-based learning experiences do have a positive impact on self-directed learning readiness.

Paper # 106
A new program in Sustainable Engineering: a platform for integrating research and service into the classroom through global engagement.
Rachel Brennan* (Penn State University)
David Riley (Penn State University)
Currently 2.5 billion people, over one third of the Earth’s population, are affected by water scarcity and are without sanitation. The majority of humanity is concentrated in coastal communities: approximately half of the world’s population lives within 200 kilometers of a coast. In many developing countries, raw wastewater is discharged into coastal waters without being treated, in the belief that these discharges do not significantly affect the environment. In reality, these contaminants not only threaten human health, but also often contribute to the loss of marine animals which local peoples often rely on for food and income. In the future, continuing population growth and economic development will increase the demand for water and the severity of pollution. There is a clear and overwhelming need for sanitation and water purification in developing coastal communities, but it is not afforded by conventional, energy-intensive and chemically-intensive water treatment or fossil-fuel-based energy systems. In high-poverty equatorial coasts, the stable temperatures, steady winds, and predictable solar input greatly facilitate sustainable practices for water treatment and energy production. We have recently begun to develop a new cross-disciplinary program in Sustainable Engineering at Penn State that empowers coastal communities in the Caribbean to improve their quality of life and protect their natural resources. In this program, senior-level engineering courses train undergraduate and graduate students to design and deploy ecologically-designed wastewater treatment plants with renewable energy systems in collaboration with faculty-led research teams and community participants. These courses are strategically designed to be training and recruitment tools to help prepare the local student chapter of Engineers Without Borders (EWB) for the project, and to provide students at all levels with challenging, immersive, hand-on experiences that augment their research and education in sustainability. This work is significant because it is one of the first international, multi-disciplinary programs in Sustainable Engineering in North America, and utilizes a student outreach organization (EWB) to mobilize the resulting efforts to engage developing coastal communities with the assistance of practicing engineers. The longevity of this program is supported through cross-disciplinary research, course development, and mentoring of EWB projects containing interdisciplinary, multi-component systems. Future partnerships in the areas of wind energy, coral reef resilience, food systems science, economic development, and eco-tourism are planned to further enhance the program.

Paper # 29
Engaging with sustainability through collaborative and transdisciplinary approaches to education
Edmond Byrne* (University College Cork)
Gerard Mullally (University College Cork)
Sustainability is a normative topic framed by disciplinary perspectives. This can be problematic as the tools that are used and applied to meta-problems and ‘grand challenges’ associated with societal (un)sustainability, and which may result in proposed ‘sustainable solutions’, are framed through the lens of the ‘object world’ disciplinarian. Traditional engineering education and practice has tended to frame problems in narrow techno-economic terms, often neglecting broader social, environmental, ethical and political issues; or what might be termed the social complexities of problems (Bucciarelli, 2008; Mulder et al., 2012). This reductionist approach has sought to close down risk and uncertainty through deterministic modelling and design, resulting in frameworks/models which provide an air of misplaced confidence but which are incapable of accounting for (or recognising) unknowability, and can thus lead to behaviour which ironically, results in increased fragility, rather than promoting increased robustness or resilience. Researchers in the social sciences and humanities are inherently more comfortable and adept with dealing with complexity, uncertainty and unknowability. This paper is posited in this context, whereby chemical engineering and sociology students taking respective disciplinary sustainability/environmental modules were brought together to work on a common assignment dealing with some aspect of sustainability. This paper reflects on this collaborative exercise, including the experiences of the students themselves, alongside some challenges and successes. It concludes that transdisciplinary approaches to learning are not just desirable in addressing wicked and meta-problems when addressing challenges of (un)sustainability, but represent a sine qua non for building the social capacity in confronting these issues.

Paper # 39
Implementing a Collaboration Activity in Construction Engineering Education
Caroline Clevenger* (University of Colorado- Denver)
Rodolfo Valdes-Vasquez (Colorado State University)
Moatassem Abdallah (University of Colorado- Denver)
Collaboration skills are increasingly necessary in today’s construction workforce. However, classroom activities that incorporate collaboration skills, ones involving interactive work among individuals towards a common goal, are underrepresented in many construction classes. This research documents and illuminates implementation of a team activity where groups of interdisciplinary students were asked to build a structure using the provided (paper and tape) resources with the objectives to create a structure that stands at least 4” tall and supports as much weight (under textbook loading) as possible. Two rounds of activities were performed with differing levels of role definition provided to the students. Team interactions and performance were recorded, along with student self-assessments, and reporter observation. The implementation of this collaboration activity continues to provide valuable lessons, which informs the integration and assessment of collaboration activities in construction education.

Paper # 21
Heather Cruickshank* (University of Cambridge)
Charles Ainger (University of Cambridge)
Richard Fenner (University of Cambridge)
Peter Harding (University of Cambridge)
s Owen (Cambridge University)
Evidence is drawn from the 411 alumni of the MPhil in Engineering for Sustainable Development professional practice programme at University of Cambridge to examine whether the sustainability dimension of their education has i) provided them with a mix of skills which they use on a regular basis, ii) equipped them to be more effective in the roles they fulfil, and iii) given them confidence to act as agents of change in developing sustainability thinking and seeking out solutions that satisfy multiple constraints within their organisations. The relevance of the content of this sustainability programme is assessed and frustrations experienced by graduate sustainable engineers and the barriers to change are discussed.

Paper # 20
Critical evaluation of simulations and games as tools for expanding student perspectives on sustainability
Jon-Erik Dahlin* (KTH)
Richard Fenner (University of Cambridge)
Heather Cruickshank (University of Cambridge)
Games have been used at the Royal Institute of Technology (Sweden) and the University of Cambridge (UK) to aid the teaching of sustainable development to diverse groups of engineering students. This paper explores how games have helped students at two institutions to reflect on issues from different perspectives. More specifically, the work addresses whether games helped to stimulate students’ learning of facts; student reflections; and student peer discussions. The games evaluated include: Building Futures; Democracy; Dilemma; Fishbanks; GaSuCo; Power Grid; and Puerto Mauricio. Methodologies used include: student surveys; deep interviews; group interviews; and essays, written assignments and tests. The main findings are that games contribute strongly to the learning of sustainability and improve critical reflection as well as facilitate interpersonal communication.

Paper # 91
Scaling Support for Teaching Sustainability: Reflections, Barriers, and Opportunities
Alexander Dale* (Engineers for a Sust. World)
Richard House (Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology)
Sarah Brownell (Rochester Institute of Technology)
Robert Best (Engineers for a Sustainable World)
Justin Hess (Engineers for a Sust. World)
While many schools have created local coursework or programs to integrate multiple disciplines and real-world experience, scaling these opportunities to reach a critical mass of students is often difficult due to technical and economic constraints. In contrast, efforts that connect multiple institutions to multidisciplinary resources may enable success by mitigating costs through replication and resource sharing. As an example, since 2012, Engineers for a Sustainable World (ESW) has been operating the Wicked Problems in Sustainability Initiative (WPSI), which connects project-based courses across multiple institutions and provides shared resources to enable faculty to expose students to real, complex topics such as providing sustainable housing or managing the roots of air pollution. After two years of successful operations at three schools, the authors are interested in scaling the asynchronous program to enable many more students to participate. However, numerous institutional and practical barriers are visible, such as the need for local champions, course time requirements, online tools, and long-term financial support. In preparation for the third annual cycle of WPSI, current faculty and staff reflected on the program’s value, limitations, and potential to scale. This work presents reflections on successes from the first two cycles, and discusses the feasible reach of the program. In this paper, we consider how to address various systemic barriers, alongside changes proposed changes for the program going forward to maximize its impact, particularly on students who have not self-selected to enroll in courses on sustainability.

Paper # 89
Health Futures Lab – Transdisciplinary development of T shaped professionals through ‘wicked problem’ challenges
Adam De Eyto* (University of Limerick)
Annmarie Ryan (KBS-University of Limerick)
Muireann Mc Mahon (Design Factors – UL)
Grainne Hassett (SAUL -UL)
Morgan Flynn (SAUL -UL)
It is clear that significant differences in approach and enquiry are apparent between the established disciplines of Design, Engineering, Business and Health Sciences. The attempt to tackle Wicked Problems (Rittel and Webber 1973) has become a challenge for universities and policy makers throughout the world yet we are only beginning to appreciate the impact that transdisciplinary collaboration can have. This paper outlines a case study in transdisciplinary education which sought to contextualise and address some of the wicked problems surrounding the health and well being of the people in an urban environment, using Limerick city, Ireland as a test bed. The Health Futures Lab was a pilot initiative that brought recently graduate students from Interactive Media, Engineering, Product Design, Architecture, Economics, Marketing and Health Sciences together with a view to applying their professional skills and competencies in a transdisciplinary manner. The lab ran for a six week period in the summer of 2014 and was situated in the heart of the city with facilitation and expert mentoring from university faculty, community advocates and a wide variety of community stakeholders. This case study examines the benefits and challenges of transdisciplinary labs as a method for addressing complex social problems and provides an example of how graduates can use their specialist knowledge while at the same time collaborating across disciplines for maximum effect. Rittel, H. W., and Webber, M. M., 1973. Dilemmas in a general theory of planning. Policy Sciences, 4 (2), 155-169.

Paper # 41
Isha DeCoito* (Western University)
Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is an emphasis which stresses a multidisciplinary approach for better preparing all students in STEM subjects, and increasing the number of postsecondary graduates who are prepared for STEM occupations. The ability to understand and use STEM facts, principles, and techniques are highly transferable skills that enhance an individual’s ability to succeed in school and beyond, across a wide array of disciplines. This study focuses on STEM project-based learning which integrates engineering design principles, mathematics, science, and technology concepts with the K-12 curriculum. The infusion of design principles enhances real-world applicability and helps prepare students for post-secondary education, with an emphasis on making connections to what STEM professionals actually do in their jobs. This study adopts an integrated approach to teaching STEM education and is grounded in situated cognition theory which highlights the fact that understanding how knowledge and skills can be applied is as important as learning the knowledge and skills itself, as well as recognizing that the contexts are critical to the learning process. This study is unique as it examines the attributes of STEM education using an organic approach to curriculum development and a unique focus on STEM concepts borne of the motivation to reinforce and integrate engineering, math, and science concepts. To be effective, teachers need content knowledge and expertise in teaching that content, but research suggests that science and mathematics teachers are underprepared for these demands; weak initial teacher preparation heightens the importance of continuing professional development. This mixed-methods study explored teacher candidates’ development of 15 digital STEM projects focusing on various topics, including the environment and sustainability, health and well-being, energy efficiency, and climate change. Through the development of STEM projects, findings reveal that teacher candidates’ interest and engagement in STEM increased, and their understanding of STEM education and learning of STEM concepts were positively impacted as they designed curricula addressing STEM education.

Paper # 92
Sustainable Social Business Incubator in West Africa
Kurt DeGoede* (Elizabethtown College)
Danni Qiao (Elizabethtown College)
Duc Dam (Elizabethtown College)
Matthew Ascah (Elizabethtown College)
Momodou Jain (University of The Gambia)
Through a partnership between students and faculty in the US and in The Gambia, we seek to establish a vibrant sustainable social business incubator to address problems in West Africa. Elizabethtown College (Elizabethtown, PA) has partnered with The University of The Gambia (UTG). The goal is to establish an incubator framework, which will in turn launch small scale self-sustaining cottage-style social enterprises. These small enterprises (non-profit businesses) will provide fair wage employment at all skill levels. Projects originate through locally generated problem identification at UTG. We seek to instill an entrepreneurial problem solving spirit among participating students on both sides of the Atlantic. We have leveraged Elizabethtown undergraduate capstone projects as the vehicle for developing the technologies and business models for this effort. Since the start of the project in 2011, 20 Elizabethtown College students from 4 different majors, including 6 non-engineering students, have participated. A similar number of UTG physics students have worked alongside these students during site visits and on parallel community service projects. UTG student participation will increase dramatically with the first social enterprise roll out (a PV phone charger). The business plan for our social enterprise calls for Gambian management. All employees will be fairly paid Gambians. All costs must be recovered with each unit sold, while remaining affordable for the end user. Margins will be minimized and applied toward future projects. To achieve economic self-propagation we must meet real social needs with locally appropriate solutions. UTG enrollment in physics has increased sharply, with the major viewed as a pathway to practical careers. The UTG students have completed several community based service projects impacting their local communities since a service learning sustainable engineering course was introduced to that curriculum in 2011. The participating students have gone on to become Fulbright scholars, graduate students and practicing professionals with new perspectives on making a positive impact in their own and the global community.

Paper # 14
Do the big sustainability challenges lie in the economic and social domains and does engineering education need to engage more with these?
John Fitzpatrick* (University College Cork)
Engineering education is mainly a technical education. However, in the context of the sustainability of the human species, it could be argued that graduate engineers entering the workplace and applying their technical education may be only accelerating humanity towards unsustainability and societal collapse. The rationale being that engineering graduates mainly enter industry and the private sector which is dominated by the neo-classical economic paradigm and short term pursuit of economic growth and profit to the detriment of the sustainability of natural systems that are underpinning the survival and flourishing of humanity. The author has been teaching engineering students for nearly 19 years in technical subjects and later on in sustainability and environmental protection. Over the last few years, he has had the niggling feeling that he, and other engineering educators, are complicit in the formation of engineers that may only accelerate humanity towards unsustainability. They mean well and truly believe that they are doing good for society. There may be good in the short term, but it is unsustainable and ultimately bad for society in the longer term. This paper briefly explores the impact of engineering on environmental sustainability in the current dominant neo-classical economic paradigm. It questions if engineering educators are producing engineers that are accelerating humanity along an unsustainable path. Even though technology and engineering are important drivers in trying to move humanity towards an environmentally sustainable paradigm, the paper constantly tries to suggest that maybe the most important levers and challenges lie in the economic and social domains. Short case-studies of energy efficiency, the experience of the industrialist Ray Anderson and the authors own reflection of teaching chemical engineering students are used to highlight this. Engineering / technological innovation is not enough and is often used and counteracted by the rebound effect and the current dominant neo-classical economic paradigm. The paper discusses what engineering educators can do to produce sustainability informed engineers who are able to engage with the economic and social dimensions of sustainability. Some suggestions for engaging engineering students with the economic and social dimensions of environmental sustainability are provided. Engineers must somehow find ways, not just to influence technological levers (which are very important) but also to influence economic and social levers so that changes in economic and social behaviours can complement and facilitate technological change in moving humanity to an environmentally sustainable paradigm.

Paper # 127
Multidimensional sustainability assessment of solar products: educating engineers and designers
Bas Flipsen* (TU Delft)
Conny Bakker (Delft University of Technology)
Martin Verwaal (Delft University of Technology)
Since 2008 the faculty of Industrial Design Engineering at the TU Delft hosts the minor Sustainable Design Engineering. The minor has been highly useful as a platform to pilot new ways of teaching engineering for sustainable development. Instead of having students make life cycle assessments and introduce them to straightforward checklists to improve their product designs, we challenge our students to develop a critical understanding of sustainability and use multidimensional assessments. Sustainability is not just about environmental benefits but also about useful products and added value. This paper describes our educational approach in the photovoltaics practicum (part of the minor). Our objective is to illustrate how such a multidimensional assessment works in practice and how it has helped students to develop a more critical, systemic perspective on sustainability. Students are asked to evaluate a PV-powered product on its sustainability by assessing the technology, usability and the environmental impact. To date, over 150 students have followed the minor, which gives us a large database of multidimensional assessments on a wide range of PV powered products. This paper describes the conclusions we have drawn on the validity of our approach. Our findings show that many of the currently available products with integrated PV systems are initially perceived as “green” but after assessing the product on multidimensional aspects students invariably reach a more nuanced perspective, with some products failing to pass the test. Students indicated how the multidimensional assessment has made them better equipped to see through the “greenwash” and give a balanced evaluation of the real value of solar cells integrated in products. The paper will elaborate the methods used in the multidimensional assessment in more detail, illustrated with student work.

Paper # 88
Development of a Case-Based Teaching Module to Improve Student Understanding of Stakeholder Engagement Processes within Engineering Systems Design
Carli Flynn* (Syracuse University)
Mallory Squier (Syracuse University )
Cliff Davidson (Syracuse University)
This paper introduces a case-based teaching module designed to increase student understanding of the importance of stakeholder engagement processes in the design of complex engineering systems. The teaching module makes use of a case study on past technology adoption and environmental injustices related to stormwater management plans in Onondaga County, NY. The module begins with a review of the history of events in the County, including social unrest when the needs of certain stakeholder groups were ignored. Students are then divided into groups, each representing an assigned stakeholder community. The students predict what engineering designs will most directly affect their stakeholder group and how each design solution may impact other groups. An assessment tool is used to gauge the students’ perceptions of stakeholder engagement and engineering design after the teaching module. Results demonstrate that the module effectively increased student understanding of the complexities related to the engineering design process, particularly stakeholder engagement activities. The module also improved student motivation and interest in course material. These results provide insights for instructors seeking effective ways to bring stakeholder concerns into the classroom.

Paper # 82
An Intersectional Approach to Understanding Underrepresented Students’ Sustainability Goals
Allison Godwin* (Purdue University)
Leidy Klotz (Clemson University)
The lack of diversity in engineering is a persistent issue which hinders the development of more sustainable engineering solutions. Different perspectives that could have been offered by more diverse participation are not considered. Understanding the career expectations of these underrepresented groups can help transform engineering to include innovative perspectives on engineering design solutions in our competive, global economy. Sustainability is particularly situated to appeal to many underrepresented students. Many women and underrepresented minorities choose engineering because of socially relevant contexts. Understanding the differences between these underrepresented groups can help shape pedagogy and recruitment strategies to change the face of engineering. We hope to help address this problem by investigating the sustainability-related career outcome expectations among engineering students who identify with groups underrepresented in the field. In particular, this research examines the intersectionality of students’ race, ethnicity, and gender, which can help us understand how unique individuals pursue sustainability goals through the cultures of engineering. The experiences of a black male in engineering is different than that of a Latina student. In addition, the experiences of black students and female students do not combine to illustrate the experiences of a Black female student. For these reasons, this perspective was chosen because it allows us to examine specific student beliefs and sustainability-related career expectations for individual underrepresented populations. We investigate this sustainability-related beliefs among underrepresented groups using data from a national (U.S.) survey in which we collected responses about these variables of interest from students in introductory college courses. Using an approach modeled after prior national surveys, our sample was stratified by institution type and the number of enrolled students. In total we received responses from 6,772 individuals enrolled at 50 institutions. We analyze the data using descriptive statistics and analysis of variance. Our results suggest that showing students the connection between certain sustainability issues and engineering careers could help as we strive to diversify participation in engineering. For example, white females, black females are less likely than other groups to want to address climate change in their careers while their while male counterparts are more likely than other groups to want to address the same issue. These results highlight ways in which some populations may be more excited about engineering careers or less based on topics emphasized. This results may help bring a broader range of engineers would likely bring new ideas and ways of thinking to engineering for sustainability.

Paper # 48
A practical approach to integrating research and education – a course experiment from KTH, Sweden
Fredrik Gröndahl* (Royal Institute of Technology)
Fredrik Gröndahl and Daniel Franzen Sustainable Development, Environmental Science and Engineering (SEED) Industrial Ecology School of Architecture and Built Environment (ABE) KTH, Royal Institute of Technology Teknikringen 76 SE-100 44 Stockholm Sweden Abstract: In this study we evaluate a project-based learning course called Applied Ecology, within the master program Sustainable Technology at the Division of Industrial Ecology, at KTH – Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, Sweden. The case study in the course is focused on the effects of a relatively large Bay, “Burgsviken”, situated on the island Gotland in the middle of the Baltic Sea, that has changed due to the eutrophication in the area. The eutrophication of the Bay has initiated bottom up processes of discussion and engagement among the stakeholders in the area, for the enhancement of the water quality and biological services of the bay, that would in turn improve fishing, swimming, biological diversity and tourism. There are several stakeholders involved in the project: a local non-profit organisation, farmers, entrepreneurs, authorities, permanent and seasonal inhabitants, researchers and others. The course is evaluated according to the methodology of Brundiers and Wiek (2013). Student evaluations have been conducted and analysed in relation to four phases: (1) Orienting phase, formulation of research question. (2) Framing phase, methodology and study planning. (3) Research phase, field study and other examinations. (4) Implementation phase, communication of the results with different stakeholders. The Applied Ecology course shares many of the positive features of other PPBL courses in the sustainability field – namely that it focuses on a real sustainability problem and that the student-centred learning approach and interactions between students and stakeholders make the student partnership in the project feel real, thus providing a practical insight of complex societal challenges.There are potential ways of improving all four phases of the course that were studied, but especially in the research phase and the implementation phase more efforts are needed. Feedback and reflections in the research phase could be improved by a clearer communication and to some extent changed pedagogical process through the course. All phases will be improved by increased communication before, during and after fieldwork between student, teachers and stakeholders.

Paper # 95
Bridging technical, ecological and social knowledge in engineering design through functional analysis
Johannes Halbe* (McGill University)
Jan Adamowski (McGill University)
Claudia Pahl-Wostl (University of Onsabrueck)
Sustainable engineering requires the joint consideration of technical, environmental, economic and social aspects to solve complex societal problems. A rising number of concepts and methods for integrated assessment and sustainable planning have been developed in the last decades, which put new demands on the engineering profession and education. The “T-shaped engineer” symbolizes the need for an integration of the traditional depth of technical expertise and new non-technical skills. This paper proposes the use of systems engineering concepts and methods to link core competencies in engineering design to knowledge from other fields, such as ecology or economics. The conventional functional analysis approach is expanded in this study from a technical focus towards a more integrated perspective that allows for the joint consideration of technical, ecological and social options in engineering design. Participatory systems thinking and system dynamics modeling is used in this study to analyze the hierarchy and flows of functions to meet system requirements. The methodology is applied to the issue of sustainable water management in Cyprus. Conceptual models are developed that demonstrate the potential of functional analysis to analyze complex sustainability issues. The results show that functional analysis is a promising approach for integrated system design.

Paper # 134
A.M.S Hamouda* (Qatar University)
Faris Tarlochan (Qatar University)
Design is a common element in most Mechanical and Industrial Engineering programs globally. In the design course, various aspects of product embodiment, manufacturing processes and material selection are discussed. To bring further flavour to the design course in Qatar University element such as life cycle, innovation and entrepreneurship with active learning was introduced. The students were divided in few groups. Each group had to address a societal need within or external to Qatar. The solutions address the issues of sustainability. The students were given sessions about tools for idea generation and creativity techniques. Once the problem had been identified, these groups were advised and coached to prepare a comprehensive business plan that include selection of materials and manufacturing processes, life cycle, organizational structure, how they will market their product, market segmentation and penetration, break even analysis and economic analysis as well as environmental impact. From the course assessment and student course outcomes surveys, it was found that the interest and learning curve for students increased drastically for this course. Besides improving the interest and learning curve, the approach had indirectly exposed the student to project management skills, economic analysis – balance sheet and cash flow and breakeven point analysis, lifelong learning, communication and teamwork. In whole, the approach was an interesting and led to further enhance the student learning process by using different learning styles through varied and innovative teaching techniques.

Paper # 102
Developing “Global Preparedness Efficacy” – a metric to evaluate preparedness of engineering students to work with underserved communities globally
Bhavna Hariharan* (Stanford University)
Sneha Ayyagari (Stanford University)
Increasing globalization and technological innovations have redefined the role of engineers in working towards sustainable development.This is reflected in the creation and adoption of ABET Engineering Criteria 2000 which included six professional skills to prepare engineers who were more aware of how their profession, products and services are embedded in the larger global, socio-economic and political context. The question of how to measure and evaluate preparedness of engineering students to meet these requirements remains an open question. In order to effectively prepare student engineers to engage with issues experienced by underserved communities in globally, it is important to foster a safe environment in which students can appreciate the complexity of the problem space and learn how to ethically collaborate with community partners ensuring that the community needs and expectations are honored and met. Responding to this need, the Global Engineers’ Education (GEE) course curriculum was developed was at Stanford University to educate student engineers to work with rather than for underserved communities in rural India to design sanitation and hygiene solutions. The GEE course curriculum provides a unique experience to student engineers to engage with community partners directly using virtual communication technologies and incorporate the local historic, social, political and cultural context into their design solutions. The students and community partners articulate their personal connection and care to the problem space enabling a discourse that fosters collaboration as equals. This paper will develop a performance indicator called global preparedness efficacy to measure the effectiveness of curricula that bring student engineers together with underserved communities in satisfying ABET criteria 3h, which is “the broad education necessary to understand the impact of engineering solutions in a global, economic, environmental, and societal context”. This indicator will measure ability to navigate the complexity and novelty of the problem space and enabling the creation solutions to the problem at hand consistent with the global socio-economic, political and cultural realities. The reflection journals of 20 GEE students describing their engagement with the design process and collaboration with community partners (both virtually and in-person) are analyzed using a coding scheme to identify what curricular elements contribute to building global preparedness efficacy. The results from this study will provide context and curricular guidance to the fellow researchers engaged in global engineering education.

Paper # 130
‘Sustainability science’ in practice: discourse & action in a university-wide transition initiative
Jean Hugé* (Université Libre de Bruxelles)
Tom Waas (Ghent University)
‘Sustainability science’ (Kemp & Martens, 2007; Hugé, 2012) is an increasingly popular concept, drawing scholars and students towards inter- and trans-disciplinary approaches that are commonly believed to embody the best solutions to solve the challenges of rapidly a changing world. While the enthusiasm generated by the concept is to be welcomed, its implementation and operationalization are challenging. If it fails to deliver, it risks to trigger disillusion and discouragement and it may come to embody nothing more than semantics and ‘loose words’. Engineers are –at least perceived as- the quintessential problem solvers in academia, but global change as well as the realization that any scientific endeavour cannot be performed in a societal vacuum forces engineers to reconceptualize their role in society as well as their research philosophy. Tangible processes are needed to turn this analysis of the current situation into actions for a more sustainable future. Sustainability assessment (SA) is such a process that may turn the initial enthusiasm for the broad concept of sustainability science into actions that lead to more sustainable engineering research & teaching. The objective of this paper is to identify the strengths and weaknesses of SA in a university-wide transition exercise, focusing on the views of the academic community in engineering faculties at the University of Ghent, Belgium. Drawing on the application of sustainability assessment processes on various systems (energy systems, development cooperation projects), and on the real-life experience of the bottom-up ‘Transition at the University of Ghent, Belgium’-initiative (, we use a discourse-analytical approach to sustainability assessment (Hugé et al., 2013). Acknowledging the variety of discourses, frames and worldviews embodied in sustainability science is a key step in creating actor coalitions that may trigger positive change in academic institutions. We will propose a qualitative evaluation of existing and planned concrete transition activities, building on recent insights in the field of ‘sustainable higher education’ (Beynaghi et al., 2014) in order to provide recommendations on how to implement sustainability science in engineering faculties.

Paper # 19
Design and early development of a MOOC on ”Sustainability in everyday life”: Role of the teachers
Matty Janssen* (Energy and Environment, Chalmers)
Anna Nystrom Claesson (Chalmers University of Technol)
Maria Lindqvist (Energy and Environment, Chalmers)
Universities all over the world have developed Massive Online Open Courses (MOOCs) to attract students and explore new ways of learning. The MOOC “Sustainability in Everyday Life” (SiEL) is currently in its design and early development stage at Chalmers University of Technology. It aims at developing the MOOC participant’s capacity to appreciate the complexity of sustainable everyday life by developing skills such as systems thinking and critical reflection on the information flow in public media. This paper aims at sharing first experiences regarding the design and early development of the SiEL MOOC and identifying the role(s) of the teachers and its features during the course design and early development based on these first experiences. An action research approach was used to reach these aims, and the teachers’ narratives about these first experiences were used as data source. Three distinct processes (pedagogical, production and interaction) and six roles (owners, teachers, learners, designers, developers and negotiators) were identified. The teachers’ roles and the processes and activities taking place during the design and early development are closely linked to each other and need to be carefully considered in order to guarantee a successful MOOC design and development process.

Paper # 43
Integration of Green Design and Manufacturing for Sustainability in Undergraduate Engineering Curriculum
Nand Jha* (Manhattan College)
Green design and manufacturing promises reduction in materials, energy use, disposal fees, and reduced pollution. Products should be designed keeping in mind the aspects of disassembly and recycling. Engineering curriculum has to catch up with the needs of society in general for sustainability considerations. The end-of-life considerations including recycling and reuse should be integrated in engineering curriculum. The selection of suitable materials, processes, and geometry that satisfies specified and implied green functional requirements should be goal of mechanical design. A curriculum revision and development of two separate courses on Green Design and Sustainable Manufacturing are being proposed. Engineers need an understanding of whole systems, life cycle, and end of life utility of the product and they have been emphasized in the new courses being developed. This is in consistent with National Science Foundation (NSF) objective as well as the requirements of American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). At Manhattan College, we plan to modify the undergraduate curriculum to include sustainability considerations in mechanical component design and manufacturing courses.

Paper # 7
Dynamic Perception of Sustainability in Engineering Students in a Mexican Public Higher Education Institution
Margarita Juarez-Najera* (Universidad Autonoma Metropoli)
Gustavo De la Riva (Irapuato Institute of Technology)
Efren Hernandez (Irapuato Institute of Technology)
cristina Espinosa (CECYTEG Plantel Irapuato 3)
Education for sustainable development leads the generation of a new culture among engineers and general specialists. We need a change in the cultural conception representing engineering studies. This change is more than a simple extension of the profession; it requires a new academic and professional culture. Education for sustainability leads to reeducation based on previously acquired knowledge. Education for sustainable development cannot be focused solely on formal activities, scheduled in the curriculum, especially limited to the classroom or to be subject of one professor. Education in this field involves leaving the purely ecological paradigm to develop skills that enable students to master a new way of being and learning to live together in connection with nature. In general in higher educational institutions students are coming from different educational subsystems with different levels of understanding of sustainable development issues. The aim of this study is to track what changes are generated in the perception of sustainability in engineering students to be taught a subject in Sustainable Development. Prior to starting such a course it was applied to 31 engineering students a 59-item questionnaire to determine the perception associated with sustainability in relation to underlying values, awareness of ecological consequences of acts, ascription of responsibility as an individual and as a member of a community; as well as interpersonal and intrapersonal skills in making specific decisions. These students were involved in different types of sustainable development and human development projects during the 2012-summer semester to reorient their perception of sustainability. After the exit questionnaire, results showed dispersion in criteria regarding students’ perception on sustainability. However, we notice that perception resizing occurred based on new knowledge, a greater appreciation of students´ role in the environment and interest in a healthier lifestyle. Outcomes show didactic recommendations on how it could be implemented the subject and make changes in institutional life to let sustainability be a value inherent in social and professional responsibility that reinterprets the concept of freedom as a philosophical category.

Paper # 18
Energy and the Environment: Development of a sustainable education course
Alandra Kahl* (Penn State Greater Allegheny)
1. Introduction to the subject area: A recent focus in course development has been climate change, and the role of engineering in the sustainable world. There is an increasing concern about the impact of human activities on the earth, and a desire to learn about those effects. This paper details the development and evaluation of course content for EGEE101: Energy and the Environment. EGEE101 is a hybrid course, conducted both in the classroom and online, which is a novel environment and has necessitated new methods of communicating information to the students. 2. Objectives: The main objectives of the course are to: provide basic understanding and appreciation of energy and environmental concepts and interconnectedness; analyze energy consumption patterns; discuss various energy resources that power the modern society; examine the energy conversion processes; explore interrelationships between energy use and industrial progress and environmental consequences; discuss future energy alternatives. Architecture of this environment has been to scaffold the student with a foundation of knowledge so that they not only understand the material, but interact actively with it. 3. Methodology/approach: EGEE 101 is a hybrid course, conducted partially at Penn State Greater Allegheny and partially online. Students are required to attend regular class meetings as well as participate in the online portion of the course. There is a lesson activity each week that they are expected to complete as well as to participate in the discussion forums. There is a midterm paper and a final project as well, which are major portions of the course. The approach here was to develop a course that could stand on its own outside of the classroom while fostering discussion within. Throughout the course, students reflected upon their learning and were surveyed as to their thoughts regarding the hybrid nature of the course. 4. Findings and contributions: It is desirable to produce engineers, scientists and energy business personnel who understand the energy system at a holistic level, and yet, still retain the appropriate engineering/science/business skills to meet the challenges ahead. This course provides this holistic experience and introduces the students to the many aspects of energy/environmental engineering. Students found the dual nature of the course to be more rewarding than a single course either online or in the classroom. Students who would normally be reluctant to contribute to discussion in person felt comfortable contributing online, which added to the richness of the course environment.

Paper # 69
Justifying Integrating Environmental Impact Assessment into Construction Processes for Sustainable Development
Namala Keftin* (Modibbo Adama University of Technology)
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a management mechanism used to predict the effects of actions on the environment with a view to providing mitigation measures and determining whether a development action should go ahead. The United Nations Environmental Protection (UNEP) set the baseline for countries to adopt EIA as a tool for environmental and project sustainability. Most countries adopted and enacted the law in their peculiar forms. However, the effective implementation as the case of Nigeria, with specific reference to the infrastructure sector leaves a lot to be done. The objective of the paper is to demystify and establish the justification for the integration of EIA with building construction project process to secure the environment from threats of construction impacts. A survey of some companies in the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja and two other states to determine whether institutional framework for the implementation of EIA existed was made. It was found out that of the nine (9) organizations contacted, only one (1) had EIA Department, buttressing the fact that no institutional framework for implementation is in place. Furthermore, data for a period of 10 years of registered and approved EIA projects was obtained from the Department of Environment (DOE), Federal Ministry of Environment (FME), Abuja. The data from 1995-2005 shows that a total of 479 EIA projects were registered and 275 were approved in the period. The housing and urban development sub-sector could only account for two (2), raising an alarm that need to be addressed.

Paper # 12
Integrating Sustainability Concepts into Construction Engineering Education through Service Learning Projects
Thomas Korman* (Cal Poly State University, SLO)
In recent years, sustainability has surfaced as an important topic in construction education and therefore has become a goal of construction engineering faculty to incorporate global awareness in their curriculum. Determining an appropriate location in the curriculum can be a challenge for construction engineering educators as other topics prevail through requirements previously set forth by accreditations review boards. To increase knowledge of sustainability concepts in Construction Engineering Education, the author has explored and implemented a variety of service learning projects. These include the Reduction in Energy Demand and Utility Consumption Exercise (REDUCE) project, the Building Information Modeling for Energy Efficiency (BIM-E2) project, and the Renewable Energy for Central America (RECA) project. The REDUCE project was developed as part of a specialty contracting construction management course. The project-based learning effort requires student teams to identify a building/facility that is in need of energy efficiency improvements. Student work groups conduct a facility energy audit for the building, identify projects to save energy, prepare a cost estimate to perform the work, and calculate the project financial feasibility of the proposed projects. With the abundance of Building Information Modeling software applications now available, the BIM-E2 project was developed to introduce students to the use of BIM software technology while focusing on Energy Efficient design. Student work groups use a work process utilizing modeling software and information technology to model an existing building and project energy consumption rates and make recommendations for upgrading the building through the use of the modeling software. The RECA project was developed to provide students with an opportunity to learn and apply their knowledge abroad. In the RECA project, students design, procure materials, prefabricate, and install a Photo-Voltaic (PV) system in a remote location of a Central American country. This hands-on service learning project allows them to apply technical knowledge and develop management skills. An abundant amount of existing research concludes that service learning enhances a student’s education in the areas of: work ethic, critical thinking, problem solving, social issues, and reasoning. This paper outlines the development, facilitation, and evaluation of the aforementioned projects and how they are used to teach sustainability concepts while at the same time providing them with hands-on experience in a service learning pedagogy. In addition, the paper will cover the teaching methodology used, the project milestones used to motivate students, and the criteria used to assess student learning.

Paper # 119
Jessica Lam* (Engineers without Borders)
Patrick Miller (Engineers without Borders)
Fraser Mah (Engineers without Borders Canada)
Alex Meikleham (Engineers without Borders)
The presence of role models within the engineering community has long been an integral component of the education and cultivation of successive generations of the profession. As the profession continues to grow and evolve, new types of role models are required to reflect the changing nature of the world within which the profession exists. One such evolution is the creation of Global Engineers, professionals who are competent in an increasingly complex and globalized society. In this paper we look at the role of role models in creating other shifts within the profession in the past several decades and discuss a Global Engineering Certificate being implemented at several Canadian universities in partnership with Engineers Without Borders Canada to help develop role models within the GE space.

Paper # 33
Systems thinking for dealing with wicked sustainability problems: beyond functionalist approaches
Johanna Lönngren* (Chalmers University of Technol)
Magdalena Svanström (Chalmers University of Technology)
Many of the most pressing sustainability issues are not purely technical problems. To work for sustainable development (SD) requires addressing wicked sustainability problems (WSPs), such as climate change, poverty, and resource scarcity. Previous research has shown that addressing WSPs is challenging for engineering students. In particular, students may feel overwhelmed by a WSP if they lack appropriate tools for dealing with the complexity, uncertainty, and value conflicts that are present in the situation. In this paper, we aim to investigate whether systems thinking competence (ST) can provide such a tool in engineering education for sustainable development (EESD). For this purpose, we elaborate on previous descriptions of WSPs, and draw on (E)ESD literature about ST to discuss different approaches to ST and their usefulness for addressing WSPs. We conclude that ST indeed can be valuable for addressing WSPs, but that it is necessary to be clear about how ST is defined. We suggest that mainstream approaches to ST in engineering education (EngE) are not sufficient for addressing WSPs.

Paper # 136
Luis Vargas (University of Chile)
Claudia Mac-Lean* (University of Chile)
The present paper presents two manners in which, by utilising the existing structures, sustainability is being integrated in the engineering degree programmes at the University of Chile. The first approach consists of including sustainability topics, principles and methodologies within the first two and a half years of compulsory courses; while the second one, entail the creation of two Minor programmes which can be undertaken by the students within a voluntary scheme. Additionally, this work describes the change process towards sustainability in teaching, and the main challenges found along the road. Moreover, in order to quantify the gap between the current and desired curriculum status in terms of sustainability incorporation, some context-specific assessment metrics are proposed.

Paper # 81
Harnessing sustainability complexity: A strategy to incorporate social factors into engineering education
Stelvia Matos* (Simon Fraser University)
Olga Petrov (Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering – UBC)
As societal expectations have changed from narrowly focused environmental issues to broader sustainable development concerns, it is vital that future engineers graduate with an understanding of how social impacts may affect or may be affected by their decisions. Drawing on complexity theory and sustainability literature, this paper describes how engineering programs can incorporate a course that will enable graduating engineers to explore the interdependencies among technical, economic, environmental and social dimensions of sustainability. System’s elements and interdependences are identified using modularity, a technique that applies deductive and inductive methods. Using the example of a sustainable lignin-based product we demonstrate how such methods are performed in practice. We then discuss the implications for engineering teaching and propose an integrated sustainability analysis course that focuses on harnessing social factors within sustainability complexity, by seeking them out and exploiting interdependencies. This will prepare future engineers to work on a more realistic scenario, and more broadly explore new ideas and possible solutions.

Paper # 53
A Multi-National, Multi-Disciplinary, Multi-Platform Course on Rural Sustainability
Alex Mayer* (Michigan Technolgoical Univ.)
Denise Golden (Lakehead University)
patrick Maher (Cape Breton University)
Mirella Stroink (Lakehead University)
The course approach was to foster learning from multiple disciplines and cross-culturally so as to understand sustainability concepts and issues in rural communities across North America. The course learning materials and activities included web-based lectures, journal articles and other readings, and a synchronous discussion session involving students and faculty from the six participating universities in Canada, Mexico and the US. The on-line, synchronous discussion sessions were designed to involve the sharing of knowledge among the participants drawn from world experiences, both personal and educative. The primary form of student assessment consisted of weekly reflection papers based on the course content, weekly discussion and their own personal experiences. Here, we focus primarily on our experience in the synchronous portion of the course, including the technology and technological challenges, working with diverse cultures, languages and academic disciplines, benefits and lessons learned.

Paper # 108
Incorporating behaviour change concepts into energy management training in professional and post-secondary programs
Eric Mazzi* (Mazzi Consulting Services)
Mathieu Côte ()
Stephen Dixon ()
Dragos Paraschiv ()
Steven Taylor ()
edward Rubinstein ()
Ken Tiedemann ()
Iris Sulyma ()
Improvement in energy efficiency is widely recognized as a critical element in sustainable development to meet economic and energy security goals, to reduce local air pollution, and to stabilize atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Energy management involves the application of methods, tools, and techniques to improve energy efficiency. Energy management training (EMT) emerged following the energy crises of the 1970’s. This training has traditionally focused on engineering methods and technology. However, it has been argued for decades that traditional engineering-economic theories do not fully explain why cost-effective energy-saving measures are often not implemented – known as the “energy efficiency gap”. To explain this gap, experts commonly cite a variety of barriers and criticisms of energy management practices, usually with explicit criticisms of engineers and their methodologies. To reduce the energy efficiency gap, experts and policymakers are increasingly arguing for the adoption of behaviour change techniques. We argue that if behavioural interventions are to be effective in narrowing the gap, then professionals at the front lines of energy management, engineers in particular, must be trained to understand behaviour change concepts and apply proven techniques. Our survey of training professionals reveals broad agreement (92%) that behaviour should be included in EMT. However, our survey also reveals that many trainers have only a vague idea as to what concepts and techniques should be taught. Many participants equate behaviour with motivational arguments for saving energy (like environment), and also rely heavily on awareness techniques. While motivation and awareness are critical, there is ample research to demonstrate there are additional concepts, tools, and techniques that must be applied to achieve the potential for behavior change. This study helps advance the practice of EMT in engineering curricula by identifying five specific elements to include in future training: (1) limits of engineering-economic approaches, (2) fundamental cognitive biases, (3) energy-saving potential of behavioural actions, (4) proven behaviour change techniques, and (5) measurement and evaluation methods. This study draws heavily upon the interrelated disciplines of psychology, cognitive sciences, and behavioural economics.

Paper # 59
Emerging Undergraduate Sustainable Energy Engineering Programs in Canada and Beyond: A review and analytic comparison
Madeleine McPherson* (University of Toronto)
Bryan Karney (University of Toronto)
Faced with global climate change and many other challenges, our energy system is transforming from a centralized, fossil-fuel dependent, utility-dominated infrastructure system to a decentralized, sustainable, “smart” network. As this transition clarifies, academics and practitioners from multiple disciplines are rethinking the way society frames, delivers, and uses energy. Successfully navigating this transformation calls for systems-thinkers who are capable of diagnosing increasingly complex energy problems and delivering robust, integrated, interdisciplinary solutions. As leaders in education innovation, universities have a distinct role in cultivating a new education framework and generation of systems-thinkers. Hiring committees, educators, and students alike are responding to this call, resulting in the emergence of novel undergraduate sustainable energy engineering programs. In particular, engineers’ training in thermodynamics and electrical principles provides the technical foundation of energy systems, which could be augmented with broader sustainable energy proficiency: for example through discourse around the economic and political factors that govern the energy system and the society in which the energy system resides. Each of these emerging programs has a unique specialization, set of learning outcomes, and organizational structure, inviting reflection on their relative strengths and weaknesses. We compare several of these programs, including the University of Toronto’s Energy Program, Carleton University’s Sustainable and Renewable Energy Engineering Degree, the University of British Columbia’s Electrical Energy Systems Option, and the University of Calgary’s Energy and Environment Specialization. Our objective is to understand the drivers that can enrich discipline-oriented curricula with socially relevant, problem-oriented literacy. We devise a series of metrics to analyze these programs, including the program structure, the scope of the curriculum, access to application and research opportunities, and the institutional energy research community. Data is gathered primarily through reviewing program documentation and websites. Finally we evaluate each program’s effectiveness in cultivating the “T-shaped” engineer using a multi-criteria framework, designed to measure education outcomes. The program comparison shows that even with the immense constraints imposed on active curriculum development including accreditation requirements, budgets, and faculty availability, there is tremendous opportunity and design flexibility regarding how to integrate sustainable energy systems-thinking into energy engineering education; seizing this opportunity now, while developing a culture of continuous improvement and adaptation, is imperative to our evolution as educators and engineers.

Paper # 117
Leveraging Networks: Online Network Based Learning for 21st Century Engineering Education and Practice
Alexandra Meikleham* (Global Engineering Initiative)
Patrick Miller (Engineers without Borders)
Deborah Dysart-Gale (Concordia University)
Govind Gopakumar (Concordia University)
How can engineering students be prepared for the their career in the 21st century? For over 10 years, Engineers Without Borders Canada (EWB) has advanced the concept of the ‘global engineer’ as one approach to this challenge. The global engineer is a technically competent engineer with excellent communication and leadership skills, as well as a developed awareness of globalization and sustainability. The current engineering curriculum offers many tools and resources to prepare students for the unique challenges and opportunities that the 21st century will present. However, there is a great opportunity to leverage recent advances in online learning and network/community based learning to enable students to further connect to these 21st century concepts. This paper outlines the architecture of an online platform as well as its approach to pedagogy and developing a Canadian learning network for global engineering.

Paper # 71
From Caring About Sustainability to Developing Care-ful Engineers
Diane Michelfelder* (Macalester College)
Sharon Jones (University of Portland)
Engineering is commonly thought of as a problem-solving profession (e.g. Allenby, 2009; Zhou, 2012). Still, good problem-solving depends on good problem-framing, which typically means capturing both the technical and social aspects of the problem at hand. It can though be challenging for engineering students to capture both these aspects of a problem. Cech (2014) has pointed out that significant challenges still exist within engineering curricula with regard to “reading” technical problems with multiple layers of meaning. What can be done to better this state of affairs? Fortunately, sustainability issues have caught the attention of this generation of college students (Watson et. al., 2013). Building on the student enthusiasm associated with sustainability may be one way to foster student development regarding how to include ethical dimensions as an integral part of engineering framing and problem solving. We suggest that one option to achieve this is by teaching sustainability using an ethic of care framework that offers elements that more easily engage individuals in problem framing. This approach assumes that because engineering students “care” about sustainability as it applies to their disciplines, faculty can use an ethic of care framework to help students operationalize ethics as an integral component of the engineering decision-making process. By building on these initial lessons, students are better prepared to consider the socio-technical dimensions of engineering problems. Our argument draws upon examples from the University of Portland that both demonstrate how students have a difficult time translating ethical theories to engineering problems, and show how the ethic of care approach can manifest itself naturally in the engineering curricula. We hope this paper serves to facilitate efforts to intentionally use sustainability issues to improve the teaching and learning of engineering ethics and further cultivate the T-shaped engineer.

Paper # 105
The Needs of Others: Social Entrepreneurship versus the Profit Motive
Mark Minster* (Rose-Hulman Institute of Techn)
Patricia Brackin (Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology)
Jennifer Mueller Price (Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology)
Richard House (Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology)
Students in Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology’s first-year living-learning program, HERE: a Home for Environmentally Responsible Engineering, report that when we define sustainability, the cultural contexts and conceptual frames we discuss seem unnecessary for their future professions. That students should define relevance narrowly is nothing new. But engineering students frequently rely on a merely instrumental view of education—a main problem that our living-learning center was built to address. Students in our HERE cohort are excited about photovoltaics, rain gardens, microturbines and other forms of what David Orr calls “technological sustainability.” These are laudable pursuits, but by failing to show interest or see relevance in the social and environmental scope and impact of the problems their innovations hope to address, our students, we believe, are as likely to invent solutions that cause new problems as to solve old ones. Moreover, if students persist in seeing engineering education and sustainability as on-the-job matters, they miss out on attitudinal, behavioral, and civic dimensions of sustainability that are so integral to the transformation that higher education and sustainability both demand. Why do engineering students who have chosen to participate in a sustainability-focused living-learning community have trouble with the less-vocational aspects of education for sustainability? Part of the answer is our own academic context. Our school’s mission is “to be the best.” We teach students to celebrate entrepreneurship and innovation as values in and of themselves. Our modestly funded sustainability living-learning program has led to a newer, far more financially successful program focused on entrepreneurship. Our students are told repeatedly that their tuition is an investment, money well spent. We ourselves describe the HERE program as, among things, providing skills that employers want. These problems are not endemic to engineering or other professional education. Universities nationwide sell themselves. Schools cite rankings from Payscale and US News & World Report, which track how much money graduates typically earn. The single-bottom-line of this approach obviously fails to address the social responsibility and environmental impact of the triple-bottom-line. But it also fails to incorporate affective dimensions of learning and civic engagement, which fall outside the narrative of high salaries. We believe that the deepest problem we face is a reductive narrative about higher education, what school is for. We hope that by framing sustainability as a kind of social entrepreneurship, we might more readily challenge the monopoly of the profit motive, replacing it with the needs of others.

Paper # 94
Sustainability in BioEnergy Academy for Teachers (BEAT): Changing perspectives and practices toward “greening” the curricula
Madhumi Mitra* (UMES)
Abhijit Nagchaudhuri (UMES)
Xavier Henry (UMES)
Courtney Shirvani (UMES)
A holistic approach of sustainability grounded in environmental concerns, also incorporates the dimensions of culture, economy, and social justice. It can be an added attraction bringing together various disciplines to explore pathways through which sustainability can be addressed in a practical manner. A one-week summer institute on Bioenergy and Bioproducts for educators from middle and high schools, and university faculty across STEAM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Agriculture, and Mathematics) disciplines was hosted by the University of Maryland Eastern Shore (UMES). This program is geared towards helping reform educational infrastructure by promoting multidisciplinary activities and content in the areas of sustainability, bioenergy, and bioproducts. The objectives of the Bioenergy Academy are: 1) to provide a systems-perspective in sustainability, bioenergy, and bioproducts education to STEAM educators and researchers; and 2) to develop and provide curricular materials and a set of teaching tools to educators for enhancing instruction in the areas of sustainable bioenergy and bioproducts. The Academy focuses on lessons and activities pertaining to sustainability, systems thinking, renewable energy with particular emphasis on bioenergy, bioproducts, and environment and policies related to energy issues. The participants got the opportunity to acquire concrete experiences involving teamwork, time management, and project execution skills; reflected on their learning experiences through presentations at the end of the institute; developed concepts related to organic chemistry, physics, engineering design, instrumentation, mathematics, biological, and environmental sciences; and actively experimented with feedstocks to generate biodiesel and environmentally-friendly soaps using the glycerin produced from the biodiesel. In addition, they also constructed their “sustainability trees” in relation to various scenarios in homes, offices, and community-at-large. The BITES ( Buildings, Industry, Transportation, Electricity, Scenarios) simulation tool developed by National Renewable Laboratory (NREL) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and made freely available over the internet allowed participants to play out scenarios to reduce carbon foot print based on those situations that can be realized through policy decisions leading to building improvements, reduction of industrial pollution, use of alternative fuels, electric cars, and other design modifications in the transportation sector, and cleaner and more efficient conversion technologies for electricity generation and conservation. A total of forty one educators have been trained through this program over a period of four years. The evaluation surveys (pre-and post) revealed that the educators gained substantial knowledge in the fields of sustainability, bioenergy, and bioproducts, and felt comfortable in implementing the content in their courses and laboratories.

Paper # 42
A Course in Sustainable Manufacturing
Young Moon* (Syracuse University)
Sustainable manufacturing is a vision that the manufacturing community has for contributing to the global society’s ability to address sustainability issues. While there is no standard definition of sustainable manufacturing, one universally accepted notion is that sustainable manufacturing must optimally address a comprehensive set of highly interdependent objectives from environmental, economic and social perspectives. This is impossible without systems’ thinking that guides the sustainable manufacturing activities every step of the way from product idea generation, to adoption of sustainable design and manufacturing processes, to selection of sustainable materials, and ultimately to product disposal, reuse or recycling. New course on sustainable manufacturing has been developed and offered several years now at Syracuse University, USA. An underlying principle in developing and offering the course is the premise that sustainability manufacturing requires a holistic view to a complete product lifecycle from the moment of conceiving new product ideas till the end of the product life, while simultaneously considering the impact of decisions made in each phase of the manufacturing activity on sustainability. The principle has been realized by: (i) adoption of a broadened definition of manufacturing and (ii) a semester-long project of developing sustainable products. In the course, manufacturing means not only material transformation processes but also manufacturing systems including supply chain considerations for sustainability. The sustainable product development project provides students with a context where they can apply methods, techniques and tools being acquired from the course. Also the developed products can lead to further entrepreneurial opportunities.

Paper # 99
MIT IDEAS Global Challenge and DLab – Lessons in Mentoring, Transdisciplinarity and Real World Engineering
Susan Murcott* (MIT)
Abstract: This paper reflects on the MIT IDEAS Global Challenge and D-Lab pedagogy over the past 15 years (2001-2015). The MIT IDEAS Global Challenge, a program of the MIT Public Service Center, is an annual invention and entrepreneurship competition that awards up to $10,000 per team for innovative service projects. IDEAS student teams work with a community partner on projects that are designed to improve the quality of life of under-served communities globally. Since its founding in 2001, the IDEAS Competition has awarded more than $600,000 to 132 teams. “D-Lab – Water, Sanitation, Hygiene and Environmental Innovations for the Common Good” (“D-Lab-WASH”) is a MIT course offered for the past 10 years within a curriculum of over 20 D-Lab classes in international development. This author has mentored several hundred student teams, including 26 IDEAS Global Challenge winning teams. Eighty-one percent of these IDEAS winning teams have been led by women students. In common with the wider family of D-Lab courses, D-Lab-WASH is structured around hands-on, field-based learning and real-world engineering. This paper provides several success stories of student teams that have implemented their innovations and addresses the following Engineering Education for Sustainable Development (EESD) conference themes: • Reconceptualizing Engineering Education: How are these two engineering programs, IDEAS and D-Lab, reconceptualizing engineering education to incorporate sustainability? What role does trans-disciplinarity, leadership, and humanitarianism play? What is best practice? • “Walking the Talk”: How do we monitor and continually improve IDEAS and D-Lab? What are the institutional supports and challenges?

Paper # 101
Real World Research in Product Evaluation and Sustainable Development to Reach Scale
Susan Murcott* (MIT)
Jeff Asher (Retired V.P and Technical Director of Consumer Reports)
Dan Frey (MIT)
Jarrod Goentzel (MIT)
Jennifer Green (MIT)
Bishwapriya Sanyal (MIT)
Abstract: Low-income consumers aspire to a better life that humanitarian products offer. International aid agencies, non-governmental organizations, governments and social entrepreneurs promote and disseminate millions of products to alleviate poverty. But many of these products fail to deliver — either to perform consistently, or if they survive in the marketplace, they fail to reach scale. Preconditions to impact, sustained use and scale are rigorous product evaluations that are trusted, affordable and comprehensible. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) launched the Comprehensive Initiative on Technology Evaluation (MIT-CITE), a five-year USAID-funded project to develop a methodology, called the “3Ss” which has guided the 2014 CITE Household Water Filter (HWF) Evaluation in Ahmedabad, India. Three expert sub-groups investigated different dimensions of the HWF product ecosystem: • Suitability (S1) Team o S1-Lab: Technical Performance at Consumer Reports in Yonkers, New York. o S1-India: Technical Performance of water filters in Ahmedabad, India households • Scalability Team – evaluation of the commercial HWF product supply chain and capacity to scale up in India based on availability, affordability and aftermarket indicators. • Sustainability Team – integrating social, economic, behavioral and product usability criteria. Findings and Lessons Learned: CITE developed a decision support tool for users and institutional purchasers of HWF products targeted to low-income consumers. Using a methodology patterned after Consumer Reports, we have done a comparative, multi-objective evaluation of more than 100+ HWF products in Ahmedabad. Results cover three product categories: particle removal filters, gravity non-electric water filters and reverse osmosis systems. Findings are discussed.

Paper # 10
What do Programme Chairs think about the Integration of Sustainable Development in their programmes?
Iacovos Nicolaou* (Dublin Institute of Technology)
Eddie Conlon (Dublin Institute of Technology)
This paper is based on interviews with seven programme chairs in engineering across three Irish higher education institutions. The interviews explore their views about the integration of sustainable development in their programmes and focused on themes identified in previous stages of this project which included a student survey and an analysis of programme content based on programme documents and module descriptors. The programme chairs participated in structured interviews which were later transcribed and qualitatively analysed in NVIVO 10 using thematic analysis. In the course of this analysis we identified a number of latent themes which helped make sense of the data. The project has already determined that engineering students have limited knowledge of sustainable development with significant knowledge gaps and a narrow understanding of the complexity of the concept (Nicolaou and Conlon, 2012) and secondly that the integration of SD competencies is inadequate and does not follow a holistic approach (Nicolaou and Conlon, 2013). The motivation for this study draws from the need to further explore a set of issues that were raised from the previous stages such as the neglect of the social dimension, the lack of multidisciplinarity and the focus of programme content on energy and environmental considerations and to identify the factors that impact the provision of Irish EESD. The paper will explore the apparent contradiction in that most programme chairs believe that SD is integrated fully into their programmes despite the evidence from the previous stages of this project which suggest it is not. This contradiction can only be resolved by an exploration of their understanding of SD and their philosophy of engineering education. We conclude that they believe SD is fully integrated because they have a narrow understanding of SD and a “traditional” approach to engineering focused on the development of core engineering competencies. NICOLAOU, I. & CONLON, E. 2012. What do final year engineering students know about sustainable development? European Journal of Engineering Education, 37, 267-277. NICOLAOU, I. & CONLON, E. 2013. The integration of sustainable development competencies in Irish Engineering Education: Findings of a curriculum content investigation of four engineering programmes. EESD’13 “Rethinking the Engineer”. University of Cambridge, UK.

Paper # 73
Developing systems thinking for sustainable development in engineering education
Anna Nystrom Claesson* (Chalmers University of Technol)
Magdalena Svanström (Chalmers University of Technology)
Present and future generations of engineering students are facing very different challenges than what engineering students did some 20-30 years back. The ability to appreciate the whole and assess complexity are abilities that become more and more urgent, to manage climate change, increased levels of chemicals in society, conversion of the energy system, manage food and water supply and many other challenges. To be able to act in a relevant way, students need to develop skills such as systems thinking to be able to assess complex systems. Systems thinking has been described as the ability to identify parts, causalities, flows and feedback loops. Systems thinking is likely a skill that engineering students develop to a varying degree during their university education, especially with regard to complex sustainability systems. To be able to improve engineering education in relation to systems thinking, it is important to understand what systems thinking is about and how systems thinking may be developed during the education. The overall aim of the study that will be partially reported in this paper is to investigate how engineering students from two different programs develop systems thinking for sustainable development and in particular how their courses on sustainable development and other interventions affect this learning and how that could be further improved. The particular aim of this paper is to describe freshmen systems thinking of sustainable systems before engaging in a university course of sustainable development. The study is performed by video recorded group interviews with engineering students from year 1, examining the freshmen students understanding of core concepts such as sustainable development and systems. An expected result from the study is that students develop systems thinking to a varying degree, from being able to identify the elements of the system to the ability to use the systems thinking to evaluate and assess alternative actions in a complex system.

Paper # 74
What do we say we teach about energy? Viewed through the lens of UK architecture undergraduate education
Sonja Oliveira* (UWE)
Elena Marco (UWE)
Bill Gething (UWE)
Changes in recent EU policy highlight the need for improving building professionals’ knowledge and skills regarding energy considerations in building design and construction. The architectural and engineering educational sector in particular is tasked with equipping graduates with the required competencies in order to be able to contribute to a fast-developing energy agenda. Although significant attention is placed on improving knowledge regarding energy in buildings in the industry sector there is less discussion across the UK professional bodies or research on the sort of literacy competencies students require to meet the growing industry and policy demands. Architectural education in the UK is monitored and validated by its professional bodies. Although curricula are required to embed sustainable development within their accreditation criteria for instance, it is less clear how energy considerations are met. The purpose of this paper is to examine how architectural educational institutions provide energy content in their undergraduate curricula. The study analyses 22 out of 45 accredited architecture undergraduate course programme specifications with a focus on exploring how energy content is described in both the learning outcomes and assessment. Preliminary findings demonstrate a varied and at times conflicting set of approaches with emphasis placed on cognitive literacy attributes of understanding and awareness with less consideration of behavioural or psychomotor attributes and little clarity in other cognitive dimensions such as knowledge and skills. The contribution of this paper is twofold. First, the findings provide an initial overview of how energy content is considered in curriculum design in architectural education in the UK. Second, the study considers the attributes that shape energy literacy in the context of architectural undergraduate education. There are also implications for policy development in other related educational curricula in the built environment including engineering, architectural technology, planning and surveying.

Paper # 116
Evaluation of materials impact on sustainability for buildings
Javier Orozco-Messana* (UPV)
The use of materials in architecture is lacking a systematic approach allowing the adequate comparison of performance from well established criteria and international standards. This situation is critically complex when the evaluation is developed at a design stage. Sustainability of materials in architecture requires a thorough analysis on the concepts of the ecology of contemporary construction, and the relevance for the final user. This effort involves identifying standards, databases and user profiles for defining requirement attributes of our existing anthropogenic stock of buildings while formulating design strategies that contribute to reuse and recycling of building materials and components. After considering all relevant information a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) approach is introduced for the correct evaluation of materials in the sustainable building. This paper provides a guide for a systematic approach to this evaluation. Materials are compared and ranked from the building systems perspective, through the previously defined LCA approach. The impact of hybrid materials is also explored as an alternative strategy for the architectural use of materials today. At the final stage the relevance of materials in the overall evaluation is performed through commercial software solutions and incorporated to the design. Life cycle engineering design (LCED) is the key and comprehensive procedure to realize manufacturing industries sustainable development. This paper puts forward knowledge management architecture of LCED based ontologies and multi-agent system. Relevant conclusions are identified for the design and use of new materials in architectural design.

Paper # 35
Injecting Sustainability into Engineering Design Projects
Libby Osgood* (University of Prince Edward Is)
Wayne Peters (UPEI)
Steve Champion (UPEI)
Ideal engineering graduates are able to think critically, produce solutions that satisfy multiple stakeholders, protect the interest of the public, and assess their ethical, social, economic, and environmental obligations, based upon their knowledge of engineering principles. Project-based learning is an appropriate forum for students to develop these skills while focused on authentic design problems. In structuring an effective learning environment, intentional effort must be made by educators in all program areas—ranging from the choice of client to the information requested in the final report—to highlight students’ greater responsibility within society. The decisions that an educator makes to the framework, deliverables, and exercises for a design project impact the degree to which students will engage in higher level decision making. This paper will discuss the strategies that have been employed in the first and second year projects that encourage students to use higher-level thinking and will introduce how sustainability will be an integral focus of the new Sustainable Design Engineering degree.

Paper # 86
Developing skills for sustainability change agents with a participatory backcasting teaching toolbox
Olga Kordas (Royal Institute of Technology, KTH)
Kateryna Pereverza* (Royal Institute of Technology)
OLEKSII PASICHNYI (Royal Institute of Technology, KTH)
Eugene Nikiforovich (Institute of Hydromechanics NASU)
The paper describes and analyses a participatory backcasting teaching toolbox (PBTT) designed to develop a set of skills required for sustainability change agents, including critical and systems thinking, future orientation, ability to work in transdisciplinary frameworks, personal involvement, conflict resolution and consensus building, dealing with complexity and uncertainty, creativity, practical problem-solving and action skills. The PBTT has evolved through experience and insights gained from the implementation of participatory backcasting (PB) methodology within two research projects and from three years of PB teaching practices. The PBTT includes twelve modules based on different steps and procedures of the PB process. The paper describes effects of the PBTT on the development of students’ skills that have been observed throughout ten teaching cases. Furthermore, the potentials and limitations of the PBTT for building up the sustainable development related skills are discussed.

Paper # 52
The Fundamentals and Practice of Essentials of Application Engineering Concept (1)
Constantin Pitis* (BC Hydro)
Engineering is nothing more than planning based on knowledge instead of guesswork. In this sense everyone in design, service, maintenance, and technical sales work is his own engineer, every day. This author presents a new Concept of Five-Essentials-of-Application-Engineering (5 EAE), enabling future consultants, designers, manufacturers, and end-users to consistently design and evaluate new projects or retrofits of power converters (PC) and/or industrial system drives (ISD). This paper presents 5EAE fundamentals and case studies applying 5EAE at level of electro-mechanical PCs and ISDs. Many times consultants, designers or end-users fail to “understand the conditions of motor use”. As a result, motors not performing efficiently or even failing inducing financial OPEX losses. One of the reasons could be that proposed 5EAE concept not being taught at tertiary education level. In motor case, proper application of 5EAE requires strong technical background complemented by broader knowledge in collateral fields. This is reflected by fundamentals largely presented in the paper. When selecting a motor for specific application the following 5EAE must be taken in consideration: • Matching the application conditions; • Matching the power supply conditions; • Matching the environmental conditions; • Matching the reliability conditions; • Matching the business sustainability conditions. Similarly, 5EAE concept could be applied at industrial systems and processes (IS&P) levels or extended to other fields of activities. Use of 5EAE reflects a deep expertise in a single area, usually technical, complemented with a broad working knowledge of multiple areas of inquiry, establishing a professional as capable of interacting with various facets of the application. The concept has already been successful applied in designing (manufacturing) various types of PCs and has created new basis–of-design for ISDs in various industries in South Africa. Proposed concept is an ideal method to prepare practicing engineering graduates for the global economy. This approach fosters individuals with a deep technical understanding coupled with broader knowledge in the fundamentals of engineering design, innovation, business, and leadership. The objective of the 5EAE concept is to minimize power losses and environment impact, maximizing global efficiency and incorporating reliability indicators as a step forward in design methodology. Besides these, 5EAE produces several collateral benefits:  An increased technical and economic performance of processes;  The defusing of incipient energy and economic crisis;  An improvement of environmental conditions;  The creation of jobs in industries. Consequently, 5 EAE can be used as model for improving a company’s corporate policies and/or utilities, government energy policies.

Paper # 60
Using Essentials of Application Engineering Concept for Designing Industrial System Drives (2)
Constantin Pitis* (BC Hydro)
This paper is continuation of “Fundamentals and Practice of Essentials Application Engineering Concept (1)” paper 52, EESD’15. There is large variety of industrial system drives (ISDs) not performing efficiently or even failing, inducing large OPEX and downtime production losses. Two thirds of the electric energy production (amounted in 2009 at 20,300 TWh) is consumed by ISDs performing 805…20% overall efficiencies. For an average efficiency value of 60% the waste energy with ISDs is estimated at 8,120 TWh. One of the reasons is that proposed Five-Essentials-of-Application-Engineering (5EAE) concept not being applied being not taught at tertiary education level. The new concept employs a sustainable and consistent approach when retrofit or new designs options are taken into consideration. From an economic standpoint, sustainability concepts favor high-efficiency systems, as an energy-efficient system translates into higher productivity. This paper presents 5EAE fundamentals and case studies applying the concept to ISDs. When designing an ISD the following 5EAE must be taken in consideration: • Matching downstream conditions • Matching upstream conditions • Matching environmental conditions • Matching reliability and efficiency indicators • Matching conditions of business sustainability Use of 5EAE requires strong technical background reflecting deep expertise in a single area, usually technical, complemented with a broad working knowledge of multiple areas of inquiry, establishing a professional as capable of interacting with various facets of the application. Proposed concept is an ideal method to prepare practicing engineering graduates for the global economy requiring broader knowledge in collateral fields. This approach fosters individuals with a deep technical understanding coupled with broader knowledge in the fundamentals of engineering design, innovation, business, leadership. Such training prepares professionals for success negotiating the corporate, global world of industry. The concept was developed in the ‘90s in South Africa in design process of dedicated motors in mining and heavy industries. It was used as a framework bringing mutual benefits to original equipment manufacturers (OEM) and their customers. Successfully incorporated in Global Energy Concept was used by reputable OEMs in designing Integrated ISDs – the future generation of ISDs for specific applications in various industries. Main objective of 5EAE concept is to minimize power and economic losses reducing environment impact, maximizing global efficiency and incorporating reliability indicators as a step forward in a sustainable design methodology. Besides collateral benefits mentioned in paper 52, this paper highlights thermal pollution resulted from poor performances of existent ISDs, potential energy savings and conservation potential obtainable by introducing IISDs in Canada.

Paper # 96
Evaluation of the arboreal vegetation influence at the environmental sustainability in the University of Passo Fundo campus, Brazil
Evanisa Fatima Quevedo Melo* (University of Passo Fundo)
Francisco Magro (University of Passo Fundo)
Ricardo Henryque Quevedo Melo (University of Passo Fundo)
Rodrigo Henryque Quevedo Melo (University of Passo Fundo)
One important aspect at the sustainable urban planning is the reserve of green spaces into various scales, due to the fact that they possess multiple purposes, reducing the pollution and contributing to the physical, social and psychological health of the users and the community that frequent those spaces. The replacement of the green areas for impermeable areas contributes, between other effects, for the floods and the heat of the urban surface, generating the heat island effect. The objective of this paper was to quantify the spatial distribution of the arboreal vegetation on the campus of the University of Passo Fundo, through geoprocessing techniques, correlating with the arboreal specimens existing, on the intention of comprehend its relation with the environmental sustainability and implications to the users of the campus. To quantify the spatial distribution of the arboreal vegetation were obtained images of high resolution from satellite, for the quantification was utilized the group of softwares ArcGIS 10.2, through the supervised classification technique, which classifies the original image into classes based on a number of samples. The area was classified inside of four distinct classes, arboreal formation, undergrowth, buildings/roads and water resources. Besides that, were evaluated the arboreal species present on the campus through the forest inventory. Were found over 102 different arboreal species with about 4100 specimens, being distributed in the whole area of the campus, this way favoring the benefits they bring, influencing on the microclimate and raising the air humidity through the evapotranspiration, providing an more favorable environment to the users, and allowing that the waters resulting from the precipitation infiltrate in the soil mitigating the rapid runoff, which is one of the factors that aggravate the formation of floods and spates. The vegetations are one important piece for the people that live and use the artificial ambient, avoiding the decline on the urban life quality and contributing at the sustainability. Because of that, there is the need to plan those artificial ambient, creating alternatives from the vegetations so that the users of these environments do not suffer the consequences of the lack of planning.

Paper # 113
Engaging Alumni in EESD Curriculum Assessment
Negar Roghanian* (UBC)
Susan Nesbit (UBC)
James Edward Sibley (UBC)
With the goal of continually improving the civil engineering undergraduate program at the University of British Columbia (UBC), the current, 2-phased, study assesses the level of graduating student achievement of two critical Canadian Engineering Accreditation Board (CEAB) graduating student attributes, namely “ethics” and “the impact of engineering on society and the environment”. The first phase, which is reported here, involves deploying, at a small scale, a novel process of assessing the ethics attribute. The base-line data collected include both the self-evaluation by a small set of 4th year students respecting their development of the ethics attribute, and the assessment by a practicing engineers alumni panel of the level at which the students meet entry-level engineering ethics expectations. In addition to assessing student achievement of the ethics attribute, the alumni panel discussed possible refinements of the novel assessment process. The second phase of the study, to be reported in a subsequent paper, involves a larger-scale deployment of the revised protocol in order to assess the CEAB “impacts of engineering on society and the environment” attribute. The objective of this study is to gain insights into possible gaps between lived curriculum and industry expectations by employing an authentic, and administratively manageable, assessment protocol.

Paper # 8
The Mindful Engineer: Contemplative Education as a Strategy for Sustainable Lifelong Professional Development
Janna Rosales* (Memorial University)
This paper explores and assesses the contribution that mindfulness practice can have as a bridge to professional self-reflection in undergraduate engineering education. The use of mindfulness practices in higher education is part of the emerging field of contemplative education. In engineering education, contemplative pedagogies remain largely unexplored, but one rationale behind contemplative education and mindful awareness is that they can help support the type of lifelong reflective practice increasingly expected of engineering professionals. In this context, the notion of sustainable development is extended to include the personal sustainability of one’s own professional development. The main research questions that inform this paper are: What does contemplative pedagogy look like? What attitudes do engineering students have towards the contemplative practice of mindful awareness? How can contemplative practices contribute positively to the professional self-awareness of the 21st Century engineer? I will sketch my own attempts to introduce contemplative pedagogy in the engineering classroom and describe a session in mindful awareness that was offered to a second-year multidisciplinary engineering class. Based on classroom observation and written responses to open-ended questions, reaction to the exercise is encouraging but there are also distinct challenges to introducing students to a largely unfamiliar and unconventional practice for the engineering context. I will provide examples of student responses to mindful awareness and then discuss the possibilities of and justifications for developing and expanding upon these initial classroom forays.

Paper # 51
Lead by Design: Pedagogical Approaches to Foster Reflective Practice and Career-long Sustainable Professional Development
Cecilia Moloney ()
Janna Rosales* (Memorial University)
Cecile Badenhorst (Memorial University)
Jonas Roberts ()
In the 21st century, practicing engineers are working under conditions of rapid change, both in the technologies of engineering as well as in the contexts in which engineering is practiced. The “grand challenges” of today and of the future require a broad range of knowledge and skills, and the capacity to connect engineering with other sectors. To respond, universities must educate engineers who understand engineering principles at fundamental levels, but who also have nimble design and process skills. This paper presents findings from a research project that developed, implemented and evaluated new diversity-attracting integrative pedagogies intended to tap into the motivations and values that engineering students bring to their work and study. Our initiative responds both to the changing demands on engineers and to ongoing efforts to increase the retention of women in the profession. Our research findings show the importance of narratives in fostering the reflective practice that can underpin both a sense of identity as an engineer and professional sustainability.

Paper # 115
Embedding Sustainability Principles into Engineering Education
Danielle Salvatore* (UBC)
Naoko Ellis (University of British Columbia)
Susan Nesbit (UBC)
Peter Ostafichuk ()
Because sustainability learning is necessarily situated in local culture and “place,” engaging key communities-of-interest in planning and deployment is foundational to sustainability effort. Recently, the University Sustainability Initiative (USI), at the University of British Columbia (UBC), employed engagement techniques that reached out across the university campus to develop generic descriptions of sustainability attributes of graduating students, which propose that UBC students within all disciplines strive to develop four attributes in preparation for facing today’s challenges (i.e., holism, sustainability knowledge, awareness & integration, and acting for positive change) (1). The USI recognizes, “that in order to find creative solutions to the ecological, economic and social challenges of our time, we must explore, advance and apply our understanding of sustainability” (2). This paper reports on a second set of engagement processes focused on developing the first stage of EESD degree-level learning outcomes that, in turn, aim to guide course redevelopment within the engineering programs. We start by presenting examples of sustainability learning opportunities offered in undergraduate programs elsewhere in North America. Most of these opportunities involve adding several courses to an already course-heavy degree. At several schools there is an option to complete a “certificate program” encompassing a few extra courses, but these certificate programs are not necessarily directed at engineering students. We then describe Applied Science Faculty engagement activities, aimed at measuring the interest of administrators, faculty members, staff, and students regarding incorporating sustainability learning opportunities within the common first year curriculum. We next relate informal first year student survey responses to the literature and we outline recommendations for advancing the development of sustainability learning within the first year curriculum. 1. teaching/sustainability-attributes 2.

Paper # 38
An Edible Education in Sustainable Development: Investigating Chocolate Manufacturing in a Laboratory-Based Undergraduate Engineering Course
Alexander Struck Jannini (Rowan University)
Christian Wisniewski (Rowan University)
Mary Staehle (Rowan University)
Joseph Stanzione III (Rowan University)
Mariano Savelski* (Rowan University)
Green engineering, sustainability, and sustainable development are topics of great import to all engineering disciplines. To introduce students to these topics, hands-on experiments were developed for inclusion within a multi-disciplinary freshman engineering course. In these experiments, students learned to produce chocolate truffles and, ultimately, challenged to analyze and optimize the sustainability of the process with a cradle-to-gate and social life cycle assessments. Student analyses incorporated waste management strategies, overall energy and material consumption calculations, carbon reduction strategies, the use of engineering software, and the importance of fair trade in this industry. Eighty-nine freshman engineering students at Rowan University completed the experiments. Pre- and post-tests were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the course on increasing student knowledge of sustainability, of sustainable development, and of the impact engineers can have on socioeconomics. Preliminary results indicate that the course was effective in enhancing student knowledge and awareness of the social and environmental implications of chocolate manufacturing. A complete analysis and description are presented in this paper.

Paper # 128
Mining Engineering Education and Research for Sustainable Mining: Canadian and Australian Perspectives.
Malcolm Scoble* (UBC Mining Engineering)
David Laurence (University of New South Wales)
This paper characterizes the nature of mining and its mining engineering support. It then reviews the concept of sustainable mining that is emerging within the mining industry, referring to some milestones and case studies. The educational and research implications of the quest for sustainable mining are then analyzed from the perspective of mining engineering academics from Canadian and Australian Universities. A review is presented of some of the education and research initiatives by mining schools that are responding to the context of sustainable development within mining. The paper concludes by considering the implications of globalization and the need for contributions from established mining schools to build capacity within education and research institutions in the developing world.

Paper # 98
What do Sustaining Life and Sustainable Engineering have in Common?
Thomas Siller* (Colorado State University)
Gerry Johnson (Colorado State University)
Wade Troxell (Colorado State University)
For the past one hundred years, engineering has been characterized as “problem solving.” When asked, first-year engineering students often provide this answer when they respond to the question: What is engineering? The engineering curriculum also reflects this emphasis on problem solving. A major problem with only being problem solvers is that it permits engineering to become just a commodity rather than a true profession – where the commodity is either the application of technology to current problems or attacking problems created by the application of technology. Downing (2005) has argued quite effectively for getting engineers involved in the “problem definition” phase as a way to return engineers to professional status as an integral part of the stakeholders. However, it might be more complicated than just getting engineers involved in the problem definition. When examining the National Academy of Engineering’s list of Engineering Grand Challenges for the 21st Century (2014), one is struck by the notion that many of these challenges do not have solutions in the traditional sense, rather they represent situations where the “solution” is the management of the challenge. This seems true for our energy needs, access to clean water, the nitrogen cycle, medicine and many others. If this is the case, should future emphasis in engineering education include topics such as diagnostics and management, similar to current medical practices that now focus on diagnostic and management of illnesses rather a cure, recognizing that a cure is not possible and the important problem is to sustain life as effectively as possible. Does it make sense for engineering educators to examine what the medical education community practices in this regard? In this paper the authors share the results of dialog between engineering educators and medical educators. We present several ideas about how engineering education could and should shift the conversation and educational approaches for sustainability from being exclusively about problem solution to include long-term problem management. To develop engineers who are better at problem management requires new approaches to engineering education. References Downey, GL. 2005. Keynote Lecture: Are Engineers Losing Control of Technology? From “Problem Solving” to “Problem Definition and Solution” in Engineering Education. Chemical Engineering Research and Design 83(A8):1-12. National Academy of Engineering 2014. Date accessed 2 October 2014.

Paper # 30
A Two Course Sequence on Developing Sustainable Technologies and Business Models for Rural Nicaraguans
Pritpal Singh* (Villanova University)
Maria Virginia Moncada (UNI)
James Klingler (Villanova University)
Nicaragua is the second poorest nation in the Western Hemisphere and has a large population of rural farmers. Villanova University has been working with rural communities for over 10 years primarily in the areas of gravity fed water distribution system design and health care clinics for community health workers. More recently, a partnership has been established with the main national engineering university, UNI, in Managua. Through this partnership, we are developing a two course sequence for both UNI and Villanova students to work together on senior design/thesis projects to develop technologies and sustainable business models for those technologies. The first course was taught in the Spring 2014 term for the first time and included 9 students from Villanova University and 11 students from UNI. We are presently teaching the Sustainable Business Models course. The students are working in mixed teams of UNI and Villanova students on projects ranging from providing remote access to the Internet to new low cost baby incubator technology. While the classes have gone well to date and the students have generally been collaborating well, there have been several challenges arising. These include lack of access to the internet for UNI students, differences in school calendars, lack of coordination of Villanova and UNI project advisors, and cultural differences between the Villanova and UNI students. Details of the courses will be presented along with the challenges faced in teaching these classes. Lessons learned and changes to be made in the next iteration of these courses will be presented.

Paper # 72
Use of STEEP Framework as Basis for Sustainable Engineering Education
Pritpal Singh* (Villanova University)
Karl Schmidt (Villanova University)
Bill Lorenz (Villanova University)
Ross Lee (Villanova University)
As the global community strives to attain sustainable growth levels, the myriad of challenges (and opportunities) also grows. While environmental factors have certainly garnered more attention (e.g. climate change, water scarcity, biodiversity loss), the ecologic footprint represents a large, but still only a partial picture of the health and wellness of the planet. Rising social and economic drivers of change have been incorporated in many models (i.e. the triple bottom line) as evidenced by the UN Millenium Development Goals, increasing transparency requests and corporate responsibility reports. These issues and impacts are often viewed, however, in isolation without a whole systems approach and understanding of interdependencies. We have coupled technology and political impacts along with the triple bottom line factors to introduce a more complete picture of the sustainability challenge – the STEEP model (Social, Technology, Environmental, Economic, and Political). This STEEP framework has been incorporated into the classes, as well as into outreach and research projects in Villanova University’s Master’s in Sustainable Engineering program. Our focus is to identify, assess and reduce STEEP impacts using the life cycle lens while filtering for resilience of the system to external shock. A holistic impact assessment is conducted for key stakeholders identified, with STEEP impacts and interdependencies assessed and prioritized throughout the product or process lifecycle. The resultant priority issues are then resolved accordingly. A 4 step methodology has been developed for STEEP assessment: Inventory Analysis: clearly define the objective, scope, boundary conditions, relevant stakeholders and life cycle stages. Define each STEEP category with relevant criteria Impact Assessment – collect qualitative and quantitative data (using life cycle assessments, studies, available benchmarks) and aggregate. Measure impacts by stakeholder group and identify interdependencies throughout the life cycle Recommendations – develop action plans to address resultant priorities to mitigate impacts using stakeholder engagement and relevant problem solving methods (root cause analysis) Monitor and Reevaluate – Periodically monitor progress with appropriate goals/targets/review The STEEP model is scalable and can be used with products, processes, projects and even organizations. In this paper we will show how to use the STEEP approach to assess, measure and prioritize impacts and then develop recommendations to be implemented that minimize footprint impacts and maximize project opportunities.

Paper # 13
Jurgis Staniškis* (Kaunas University of Technolog)
Eglė Katiliūtė (Kaunas University of Technolog)
While the importance of evaluating the education of sustainable development programmes has been widely recognised, very limited information is available on the topic. QUESTE – SI project was funded by the European Commission under the Lifelong Learning programme ERASMUS (2010-2012). QUESTE – SI stands for “Quality system of European Scientific and Technical Education for Sustainable Industry”. The project was coordinated by EFMD, the Management Education Network, and ENQHEEI, the European Network for Quality of Higher Engineering Education for Industry. The QUESTE – SI evaluation and accreditation focuses on the institutional unit (department) that is responsible for one or more programmes. A key point is to ensure that each graduate learns the sustainability aspects related to the concerned education domain. A fair evaluation of social responsibility and sustainability education is not limited to teaching and learning methods or curricular content – it depends on parallel efforts in all dimensions. The main objective of the paper is to present, analyse and discuss principles, implementation and results of the original assessment and accreditation system for higher engineering education. The system comprises all five roles of the university: education, research, infrastructure and management, students’ involvement and society. More than 10 European science and technical universities have been accredited in accordance to the QUESTE – SI requirements. Kaunas University of Technology was represented by the Institute of Environmental Engineering with the M.Sc. Programme “Environmental Management and Cleaner Production” and the Ph.D. Programme “Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management”. The Institute of Environmental Engineering has been awarded the highest ranking and has become a fertile basis for a larger pilot project. The paper presents principles, methodology, results of QUESTE-SI evaluation and accreditation and the experience of pilot institution.

Paper # 64
Developing change agency for sustainable development – experiences from a new chemical engineering course
Magdalena Svanström* (Chalmers University of Technology)
The chemical engineering programme at Chalmers University of Technology in Göteborg, Sweden, has had compulsory courses on environmental science, environmental engineering and sustainable development (SD) at bachelor level for many years. This paper reports on curriculum development projects performed in 2013 and 2014 aimed at improving the quality of the program curriculum with regard to the compulsory content on ‘environment and SD’ and on experiences of planning a new course that was developed as a result of these projects: Perspectives on chemical engineering. The curriculum development projects contrasted the existing curriculum to syllabi from upper secondary school, to needs expressed by industry, alumni and engineering students, and to state-of-the-art engineering education for SD, and ended up in, among other things, ideas to be implemented in a new course in the first year. The new course focuses on introducing chemical engineering and the professional role of the chemical engineer, and developing change agency for SD. The new course was given for the first time in late spring 2015. In the course, the students are doing a smaller individual change project in which they change something in their daily life for a week and assess the impact and reflect on the challenges in making the change. They also do a larger group project in which they make a sustainability assessment of a considered sustainability-motivated change in chemical industry, including reflecting on the challenges in achieving change. Industry representatives help to guide the students in the project. The course also introduces basic concepts and tools like life cycle perspective, mass balances, biorefinery and industrial symbiosis. Special care is put into attempting to constructively align teaching and learning activities and assessment to the overall goal of developing students’ change agency for SD. The paper reports on this endeavour. The presentation at the conference also reports on the actual experiences from giving the course for the first time, in particular in relation to change agency for SD.

Paper # 58
Sustainable Practices across Leading Canadian Universities
Samiha Tahseen* (University of Toronto)
Bryan Karney (University of Toronto)
Ian Sinclair (University of Toronto)
Educational institutions are the learning grounds both for current students and for generations to come. These establishments often play a significant role in shaping human behavior as values and practices adopted by students influence their actions and their future communities. Universities – being the premier knowledge producers in society – should therefore be the leaders in bringing and promoting sustainable practices and behaviour. Sustainable development, sometimes referred as “meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987), has become an increasingly important consideration as evidence mounts that ecosystem degradation, natural resource depletion and global climate change threaten our ability to support society into the future. In this situation, the ability to foster sustainable behavior among all academic disciplines could be the single greatest contribution that universities can make towards a sustainable future. This is in addition to any facilities management-related activities that any large organisation can claim expertise over. Recognizing this, universities have increasingly focused on campus sustainability and mandated the creation of associated action plans. “It’s Greener Here” by University of Toronto, University of Waterloo Sustainability Project (UWSP), Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) by University of British Columbia are a few Canadian examples. However, due to the variety of approaches and scope of interventions, there is a great need to assess current sustainability practices. Hence, this paper reviews and analyzes Campus Sustainability Assessment Frameworks (CSAF) by leading Canadian universities with the objective of identifying current best practices. Based on this analysis, a campus sustainability assessment tool has been developed using multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) technique. The tool is then implemented for the purpose of drawing comparisons across the large volume of divergent campus sustainability indicators. These indicators are broadly classified into five thematic groups: research, education, infrastructure, campus operation, administration & community engagement. The implicit nature of MCDM makes it particularly suitable for this analysis as it permits the integration of the three well-known pillars of sustainability: economic, environmental and social and thus, provides a unified overall outcome. According to the analysis, all the universities under consideration have shown superior performance in infrastructure operation and community engagement while overall campus operation and designing sustainability focused curricula have got the least attention. By emphasizing the critical role of universities, this paper encourages the advancement of the sustainability agenda by moving closer to a “culture of continuous improvement”.

Paper # 90
Are Finns Walking the Talk? Examining the National Collaboration Process on Engineering Education for Sustainable Development Five Years Later
Annina Takala* (TUT)
Kati Korhonen-Yrjänheikki ()
In 2009, the National Collaboration Group for Finnish Engineering Education published a proposal for action on sustainable development (SD). The aim of this paper is to analyze how the three main universities providing engineering education have fulfilled their commitments. The study consists of interviews with key stakeholders supplemented with the analysis of documented material. It is argued that the studied universities are now committed to SD in their strategies. However, a lot of work remains to be done before the strategies are implemented and SD is integrated to all degree programmes. Recommendations for the next steps are presented.

Paper # 75
Transdisciplinarity. Which role for Sustainable Development Education and its situation within Engineering Education
Jordi Segalas (UPC – Barcelona Tech)
Gemma Tejedor* (Unversity Research Instsitute of Sustainaibility Science and Technology. )
Introduction to the subject area: Sustainability problems are widely recognized as wicked problems, beyond the scope of normal, current engineering science, which should not be thought of as problems to be solved, but conditions to be governed. Agreement exists on the need to reform scientific expertise required to deal with sustainability challenges, developing new ways of knowledge production and decision-making. A critical element of sustainability science is the engagement of different actors from outside academia into research processes. This allows the integration of the best knowledge available, the reconciliation of different values and political interests, and taking ownership of problems and solutions. In this sense interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary aspects of sustainability are widely acknowledged as a transformational stream of sustainability science. Transdisciplinarity goes a step further, to the science/society interface. It implies identifying the transitions of relevant societal problems through knowledge integration in mutual learning processes, which result socially robust, and transferable. When entering transdisciplinarity, also encompassing social sciences and humanities, engineering researchers enter unfamiliar grounds. Advancing sustainable engineering science requires creating new long-term, participatory, solution-oriented programs as platforms to recognize and engage with the macro-ethical, adaptive, and cross-disciplinary challenges embedded in their professional issues. But education often seems to go after the events. It is argued that the transience terms of most engineering academic projects do not match the long-term relationship and capacity building required for meaningful participatory engagement and transformational change. Furthermore, engineering education is usually structured around the search for specific technological solutions. The difficulties to change engineering education are broadly analyzed in literature: anachronistic pedagogy, mismatched incentives, insufficient expertise, lack of personal commitment, familiar and comfortable patterns for scholars, overcrowded curriculum, etc. Nevertheless, in spite of any old pattern, operationalizing the goals of the field, developing the necessary competencies, and seeking novel partnerships between society and the academy will position academic institutions to impact on the transition to sustainability. Objectives: The aim of this work is to deeply analyse characteristics of transdisciplinary frameworks for engineering Education for sustainable development (EESD), emphasizing where the interface between academia and society presents opportunities for the application of transdisciplinary methodologies. Transdisciplinary approaches will be identified in engineering education and EESD initiatives, which the aim to demonstrate deficit and also success of transdisciplinary approach elements. Methodology/Approach: Literature review of universities and individuals experiences. Initiatives of implemented transdisciplinary approaches in EESD are analyzed, and results and outcomes developed. Investigation on the different ways in which universities apply transdisciplinary as a teaching method. Findings contributions: The research leads to understand which is the state of the transdisciplinary approach in EESD. The research specifies the characteristics of transdisciplinary for higher education in Sustainability and what does this implies for EESD.

Paper # 57
Development of a Sustainable Engineering Masters Program: the path taken and lessons learned
Brian Thorn* (Rochester Institute of Technol)
Andres Carrano (Auburn University)
Beginning in 2002, the Kate Gleason College of Engineering (KGCOE) at the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) began implementing a series of sustainability themed curricular innovations. These innovations began in 2002 with the introduction of courses focused on sustainability, followed with the implementation of a programmatic minor in Sustainable Product Development in 2006, and culminated with the development and registration of the nation’s first Sustainable Engineering graduate programs in 2008. This article describes the genesis and maturation of KGCOE’s Sustainable Engineering graduate programs. The article reviews the early work that set the stage for the development of the new degree programs in Sustainable Engineering, and details the establishment and workings of the multidisciplinary faculty team that was charged with structuring the programs and marshalling them through the RIT curricular approval process and the New York State program registration process. These award winning programs have now been in place for over 7 years, and during that period they have evolved. This article describes the lessons learned along the program development path and highlights important program outcomes. Particular attention and reflection is devoted to the unusual demographic characteristics of the graduate student body that constitutes the programs. A comparison between the populations of these programs in sustainable engineering and those from other engineering departments in the same college is presented. The results indicate that the Sustainable Engineering programs are attracting a more diverse pool of students (with respect to academic preparation, national origin, and gender) than other KGCOE graduate programs.

Paper # 76
Taking Stock: Sustainability in Engineering Teaching; case of CES EduPack – software for academics
Tatiana Vakhitova* (Granta Design)
Hugh Shercliff ()
Mike Ashby ()
The paper presents the results of a survey of academics about teaching sustainable development topics in engineering, design and materials science courses, with particular emphasis on materials aspects of the problem. Over 200 responses were analysed, complemented with the outcome of a multi-national workshop on the subject, and the main findings were summarised. Key findings were the need for well-documented case studies for project-based learning, and the need for a more global perspective in teaching this topic. A recently published ‘5-step methodology’ provides a framework for individual or group student work on a diverse range of problems: from substitution of sustainable materials into products, energy-using devices, to renewable energy and storage technologies. The diversity of potential case studies, and the breadth of knowledge that could be required to address the dominant issues in a given problem, presents a particular educational challenge to help students to navigate with confidence through a meaningful analysis. The paper discusses some refinements to the new methodology that could improve its rigour, and its ease-of-use by undergraduate or graduate students.

Paper # 24
Learning how to make trade-offs in pursuit of sustainable urban development: building a serious game
Rien Van Stigt* (University of Applied Sciences)
Elger Heere ()
Daniël van den Berg (Utrecht University of Applied Sciences)
Maisam Haydary (Utrecht University of Applied Sciences)
Wouter de Hoon (Utrecht University of Applied Sciences)
Gideon den Ouden (Utrecht University of Applied Sciences)
Rens Spierings (Utrecht University of Applied Sciences)
Introduction Sustainable urban development is not a goal in itself; it is about maintaining and enhancing the quality of life within a city, without jeopardizing the natural and man-made systems that bring about this quality. Urban quality is known to be a multidimensional concept, which makes it difficult to manage. Furthermore, the indicators that are used to steer and monitor urban quality include objective as well as subjective variables; therefore, urban quality means different things to different actors. Local governments, urban planners and their advisors, in their pursuit of sustainable urban development, are facing serious dilemma’s that arise from this illusive character of what we call ‘urban quality’. They strive for high densities – which allows for a high level of amenities and public transport and minimizes conversion of green and open space into urban areas – but in the meantime have to minimize nuisance, pollution and risk. They make trade-offs between space for residential buildings and parks, or between living close to the station and being bothered by railway noise. They have a tight budget, but also want to prepare for the effects of climate change. In short: they must balance a lot of different interests advocated by almost as many stakeholders. Objectives Apart from the technical aspects of urban quality, engineers who are concerned with designing and building the city must know how to deal with the ‘soft’ side of it: how can diverging interests be brought together or, if this is not possible, how can optimal trade-offs be made? Following a ‘learning-by-doing’ approach, we wanted to develop a serious game that would confront players with diverging interests in a particularly difficult case, namely the redevelopment of an inner-city area close to a railway station. Approach We had a team of five students (from our geo-informatics, urban planning and real estate management programs, respectively) analyze the most important stakeholders and their interests and build a serious game, based on the game engine that supports Climate Game®. We adopted a two-pronged strategy: 1: analyze existing urban projects of this type, combined with basic training of the game’s concept and engine; 2: convert the analysis into a storyboard of stakeholders, actions, indicators and interrelationships. Findings Apart from a first working prototype of the game, the learning effect of this pilot project was that students became aware of the importance of communicating and negotiating between stakeholders.

Paper # 27
Designing for impact: a model of community engagement for sustainable development
Scott Jiusto (WPI)
Richard Vaz* (WPI)
As universities increasingly involve engineering students in sustainable development work through community engagement, challenging questions arise regarding how to effectively serve the interests of both academic and non-academic participants. To date the literature on community engagement strategies such as service learning, project-based learning, and community-based research has had more to say about student experience than about implications for the university more broadly, or – critically – about impacts on community partners and community wellbeing more generally. While the potential for “real world” impact animates student learning and makes engagement meaningful, broader impacts can be hard to conceptualize and assess; arguably the more potentially consequential the impacts, the more they are likely to be mixed and hard to understand. This paper presents a simple model for thinking about community engagement program design and assessment at various scales of impact, across both academic and non-academic communities. We illustrate the model with examples drawn from a program operating in Cape Town, South Africa, where students confront a paradoxical challenge: nowhere are engineering insights and contributions more desperately needed than in the burgeoning urban informal settlements of the developing world that are home to 1/7th of the world’s population, but the sustainable development strategies and cultural assumptions that academics carry with them often come undone in the social, environmental, economic, and institutional maelstrom that typically prevails in these areas. How then, if at all, are we as educators, engineers and/or community development practitioners to engage with students and community partners to advance sustainable development in such environments? How do we plan for and measure program success (of what? for whom?) in a context especially prone to failure of things built and relationships nurtured? How in short do we foster engagement that is thoughtful, collaborative, resourceful, respectful, hopeful, resilient and beneficial to all concerned?

Paper # 23
Comparing the Outcomes of Horizontal and Vertical Integration of Sustainability Content into Engineering Curricula using Concept Maps
Elise Barrella (James Madison University)
Mary Katherine Watson* (The Citadel)
The goal of this project was to compare the conceptual sustainability knowledge of students at two institutions that differ in their approaches of integrating sustainability into curricula. One institution is a research-intensive university that has implemented a sustainability-focused course (vertical integration), and the second is a teaching-focused university that has woven sustainability into a variety of classes across its curriculum (horizontal integration). At both institutions, students beginning their capstone design experience created concept maps (cmaps) on the focus question: “What is sustainability?” Structure of student knowledge was analyzed using the traditional cmap scoring method, while specific content was evaluated using word clouds. Results support that students engaging in the curriculum with horizontal integration demonstrated broader, deeper, and more connected knowledge than students enrolled in the vertically-integrated curriculum. Furthermore, students participating in the horizontally-integrated curriculum demonstrated a more balanced understanding of sustainability, with the often-neglected social dimension being significantly represented in their cmaps, as compared to students from the vertically-integrated curriculum. Economic sustainability was a common weakness.

Paper # 109
Sustainable Development for Engineers through a Thematic Restructuring of Experiential Learning
Paul Winkelman* (University of British Columbia)
Jason Penner (CCEL, UBC)
Ara Beittoei (University of British Columbia)
Complex engineering projects often require interdisciplinary approaches and the ability to understand and navigate professional, cultural, social, and political contexts in order to find sustainable solutions. Piloted in 2011, the Faculty of Applied Science at the University of British Columbia offers APSC 461 and 462, Global Engineering Leadership, to better prepare graduates for a broader scope of engineering practice. The courses emphasize four key themes: leadership, ethical community engagement, participatory planning and understanding differences. These four themes provide a strong framework for student learning as they are intended to problematize the technical mindset of traditional engineering practice (e.g. linear and hierarchical thinking; a western, scientific worldview). In APSC 461, drawing on a pedagogy of Community-based Experiential Learning (CBEL), the four themes are explored through a series of talks (guest speakers, instructor), student-led discussions and workshops, and collaboration on a community project proposed by a local organization. Students further engage in the concepts through written reading responses and reflections. The preparation provided by the four themes becomes even more important for those who continue in the international service learning course module of APSC 462. This practicum is hosted by an agro-ecology centre in a rural community in Mexico. Anecdotal evidence suggests these themes support critical reflection and student preparedness to work with community partners. More formalized studies are required to properly assess the impact which will, in turn, inform future development of the courses.

Paper # 77
Engineering Sustainability Markets: Why T-Shaped Engineers Need Communication Design
Alan Young* (AUT University)
Numerous authors have described the importance of the T-shaped engineer—one who has both a specialization, and further knowledge that connects their specialization to other disciplines and to the wider needs of society and the environment. This approach has particular value when ascribing sustainability a fundamental role in the design process—indeed it suggests a paradigm shift in ways of thinking engineering. Design and production processes, and their teaching, are shifting to deal with global realities which have cast many traditional approaches as limited at best, and at worst, destructive. Few authors exploring the T-shaped professional and sustainability, however, have recognized the importance of communication design—in particular, marketing and advertising—within the design process. Currently this tends to be relegated to the ‘commercialization’ stage, which arrives after the important work is done. This is now an out-dated model. Sustainability is very low on the scale of consumer appeal—in some cases having the opposite effect. The very best of intentions can amount to nothing if the product fails to inspire consumers to buy it, and most products, sustainable or not, fail in the market place. Many engineers and writers on engineering reveal an underlying assumption that if a product can save the world, consumers will buy it. This is a dangerous fallacy—irrefutably built on admirable ideals—yet a fallacy just the same. Consumers have long been recognized to be frequently illogical and even self-adverse. This paper provides a description of the current issues militating against the success of ‘green’ products and services in the marketplace. It argues that a knowledge of semiotics—that is, of products which ‘speak to’ consumers in a language they respond to—must be built in to any engineering process from the very first stages—especially when engineering for sustainability. The paper demonstrates firstly that many engineers, and especially those who see value in sustainability, have a psycho-social profile that works against them considering advertising and marketing as being important considerations. Secondly, it makes a case that communication design must not be seen as subsequent, but as weaved into the innovation and production stages from the beginning. Thirdly, it outlines key considerations to help engineers utilize communication design as part of their own T-shaped professional identity.